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Trans fats

Why in news?

WHO for eliminating industrially produced trans fats by 2023.

About the news

  • This is in line with the WHO’s objective and recommendations of its REPLACE action package, which was developed and launched in 2018.
  • The current permitted level of industrially-produced trans fat is 5 per cent in India.
  • FSSAI will be reducing the industrially produced trans fatty acids to less than 2 per cent by the year 2022 in a phased manner.

What are trans-fats?

  • Trans fat, also called unsaturated fatty acids are a type of unsaturated fat that occur in small amounts in nature.
  • They are made by adding hydrogen to liquid vegetable oils.
  • It is to make them more solid, and to increase the shelf life of foods.
  • There are largely present in Vanaspati, margarine and bakery shortenings, and can be found in baked
 
  • and fried foods.
  • It is mainly produced through industrial process, but is also found naturally.
  • Trans fats are known to increase the risk of coronary artery heart disease and stroke.

Types

  • There are two broad types of trans-fats found in foods
  1. Naturally-occurring trans fats
  2. Artificial trans fats
  • Naturally-occurring trans-fatsare produced in the gut of some animals and foods made from these animals (e.g., milk and meat products) may contain small quantities of these fats.
  • Artificial trans-fats(or trans-fatty acids) are created in an industrial process that adds hydrogen to liquid vegetable oils to make them more solid.
  • In November 2013, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) made a preliminary determination that partially hydrogenated oils are no longer Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) in human food.

Why do companies use trans-fats?

  • Trans fats give foods a desirable taste and texture.
  • Many restaurants and fast-food outlets use trans fats to deep-fry foods because oils with trans fats can be used many timesin commercial fryers.

How do trans fats affect health?

  • Trans fats raise bad (LDL) cholesterol levels and lower good (HDL) cholesterol levels.
  • Eating trans fats increases your risk of developing heart disease and stroke.
  • It’s also associated with a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

Government Interventions

National Register of Citizens

Why in news?

Supreme Court refuses to extend July 31 deadline to finalise National Register of Citizens in Assam.

WHAT IS NRC?

  • The National Register of Citizens (NRC) is a list of Indian citizens of Assam.
  • The NRC was introduced to identify illegal immigrants from Bangladesh and recognise the Indian citizens in Assam.
  • It was prepared in 1951, following the census of 1951.
  • Assam has become the first State to get the first draft of its own updated NRC.

Why the NRC is being updated in Assam?

  • The NRC is now being updated to detect Bangladeshi migrants who may have illegally entered Assam after the midnight of March 24, 1971.

How NRC is updated?

  • NRC updation basically means the process of enlisting the names of citizens based on Electoral Rolls upto
 
  • 1971 and 1951 NRC.
  • The NRC will be updated as per the provisions of The Citizenship Act, 1955 and The Citizenship (Registration of Citizens and Issue of National Identity Cards) Rules, 2003 
  • For a person’s name to be included in the updated NRC list of 2018, he/ she will have to furnish:
  • Existence of name in the legacy data
  • In case of the applicants born after 1971, by Proving linkage with the person whose name appears in the legacy data
  • The NRC will be now updated to include the names
  • of those persons (or their descendants) who appear in the NRC, 1951,
  • (or) in any of the Electoral Rolls up to the midnight of 24th March, 1971
  • (or) in any one other admissible documents issued up to mid-night of 24th March, 1971, which would prove their presence in Assam or in any part of India on or before 24th March, 1971.

What is Legacy Data?

  • All the names appearing in the NRC, 1951, or any of the Electoral Rolls up to the midnight of 24th March, 1971 together are called Legacy Data.

Requirements for inclusion in updated NRC

  • Existence of a person’s name in the pre-1971 period &
  • Proving linkage with that person.

Processes involved

  • Legacy Data Publication Phase
  • Application Form Distribution & Receipt Phase
  • Verification Phase
  • Draft NRC Publication & Receipt of Claims & Objections Phase
  • Final NRC Publication
Bureau of Indian Standards

Why in news?

Import of second-hand or refurbished electronics and IT goods without registration with the Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) is prohibited.

About BIS

  • Bureau of Indian Standards is the National Standard Body of India established under the BIS Act 2016 for the harmonious development of the activities of standardization, marking and quality certification of goods.
  • It is working under the aegis of Ministry of Consumer Affairs, Food & Public Distribution, Government of India.
  • It was established by the Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986.
  • Indian Standards Bill, 2015 which was passed on 2016 repealed the existing Bureau of Indian Standards Act, 1986.

Features of the Act

  • Establishing the Bureau of Indian standards (BIS) as the National Standards Body of India
  • Allowing multiple types of conformity assessment schemes
  • Enabling the Government to bring under the mandatory certification regime such goods, article, process
 
  • system or service which it considers necessary from the point of view of public interest; human, animal, or plant health, safety of the environment, prevention of unfair trade practices, and national security;
  • To enable the Government to make mandatory hallmarking of precious metal articles.
  • To provide for recall of products bearing the Standard Mark, but not conforming to relevant Indian Standards
  • To strengthen penal provisions, enable compounding of offences, and also make certain offences as cognizable.
  • To appoint any authority/agency, in addition to the BIS, to verify the conformity of products and services to a standard and issue certificate of conformity.

Environment

Basel Convention

Why in news?

The 14th Conference of the Parties to the Basel Convention (COP-14) to end today.

About Basel Convention

  • The Basel Convention on the Control of Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes and Their Disposal is an international treatythat was designed to reduce the movements of hazardous waste between nations, and specifically to prevent transfer of hazardous waste from developed to less developed countries (LDCs).
  • It is also known as the Basel Convention.
  • The Convention was opened for signature on 22 March 1989, and entered into force on 5 May 1992.
  • As of October 2018, 186 states and the European Union are parties to the Convention. 
  • Haitiand the United States have signed the Convention but not ratified

Objectives

  • Intend to minimize the amount and toxicityof wastes generated
  • Ensure their environmentally sound management as closely as possible to the source of generation
  • Assist LDCs in environmentally sound management of the hazardous and other wastes they generate
  • It does not address the movement of radioactive waste

Conference of the Parties (COP)

  • The Conference of the Parties (COP) is the governing body of the Basel Convention.
  • It is composed of governments of countries that have accepted, ratified or acceded to it.
  • The implementation of the Convention is advanced through the decisions it takes at its meetings.

Current Affair Capsules

 
Indian Staffing Federation (ISF)
  • Indian Staffing Federation (ISF), an apex body of flexi staffing industry in India was formed with one common goal, Staffing India’s Growth.
  • Flexi staffing often called ‘contract staffing’ is a process where companies hire professionals as per the requirements, for a particular period of time.

Map Aided Programme

Iron Ore Distribution in India

Why in news?

Haematite

  • Odisha 33%
  • Jharkhand 26%
  • Chhattisgarh 18%
  • Rest in Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Maharashtra, MP, Rajasthan, UP

Magnetite

  • Karnataka 73%
  • Andhra Pradesh 14%
  • Rajasthan 5%
  • TN 4.9%
  • Rest in Assam, Bihar, Goa, Jharkhand, Kerala, MH, Meghalaya and Nagaland

Iron Ore in Orissa

Barabil-Koira

  • valley
  • Sundargarh,
  • Mayurbhanj,
  • Cuttack,
  • Sambalpur,
  • Keonjhar and
  • Koraput

Iron Ore in Chhattisgarh

  • Bailadila mineis the largest mechanised mine in Asia
  • Iron Ore in Jharkhand
  • First mine in Singhbhum district in 1904.

Noamandi mines 

  • in Singhbhum are
  • the richest.
  • Magnetite ores
  • occur near Daltenganj
  • in Palamu district.
  • High grade ore deposits

are those of Kemmangundi

 in Bababudan hills of

Chikmagalur district and 

Sandur and Hospet in

Bellary

  • Andhra Pradesh (1.02%): Kurnool, Guntur, Cuddapah, Ananthapur, Nellore.
  • Maharashtra (0.88%): Chandrapur, Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg.
  • Madhya Pradesh (0.66%).
  • Tamilnadu: Salem, Tiruchirapalli, Coimbatore, Madurai etc.
  • Rajasthan: Jaipur, Alwar, Sikar, Bundi, Bhilwara.
  • Uttar Pradesh: Mirzapur.
  • Uttaranchal: Garhwal, Almora, Nainital.
  • Himachal Pradesh: Kangra and Mandi.
  • Haryana: Mahendragarh.
  • West Bengal: Burdwan, Birbhum, Darjeeling.
  • Jammu and Kashmir: Udhampur and Jammu.
  • Gujarat: Bhavnagar, Junagadh, Vadodara.
  • Kerala: Kozhikode.

Previous Year Questions Revision Series (Pqrs)-(2013)

  1. In India, If the interest rate is decreased in an economy, it will
    • decrease the consumption expenditure in the economy
    • increase the tax collection of the Government
    • increase the investment expenditure in the economy
    • increase the total savings in the economy