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National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR)

Why in news?

The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) has summoned senior officials from five states to depose on the safety issues regarding use of Johnson & Johnson baby care products.


  • The National Commission for Protection of Child Rights (NCPCR) emphasizes the principle of universality and inviolability of child rights and recognizes the tone of urgency in all the child related policies of the country.
  • It is the apex child rights body.
  • The Commission’s Mandate is to ensure that all Laws, Policies, Programmes, and Administrative Mechanisms are in consonance with the Child Rights perspective as enshrined in the Constitution of India and also the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.
  • It was set up in March 2007 under the Commission for Protection of Child Rights Act, 2005.
  • The commission works under the aegis of Ministry of Women and Child development.
  • The Child is defined as a person in the 0 to 18 years age group.
  • It also has responsibilities under POCSO Act,2012 and RTE Act,2009
  • It is the responsibility of NCPCR to establish Children’s Courts for speedy trial of offences against children or of violation of child rights and get State governments and UT administrations to appoint a Special Public Prosecutor for every Children’s Court
  • It can inquire into complaints and take suo‐motu notice of matters relating child right violations.: Vulnerable Sections

Convention on the Rights of the Child

  • The Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1989 is the widely accepted UN instrument ratified by most of the developed as well as developing countries, including India.
  • The Convention prescribes standards to be followed by all State parties in securing the best interest of the child and outlines the fundamental rights of children.
  • Countries that ratify the Convention agree to be legally bound by its provisions.
  • The UNCRC has 54 Articles each of which entails a different type of right such as:
  • Survival rights
  • Developmental rights
  • Protection rights
  • Participation rights

World Affairs

World Economic Outlook

Why in news?

IMF forecasts India’s growth to pick up from 7.1% in 2018 to 7.3% in 2019 and 7.5% in 2020 in the World Economic Outlook 2019 April report.

About World Economic Outlook Report

  • The World Economic Outlook (WEO) is a survey conducted and published by the International Monetary Fund.
  • It portrays the world economy in the near and medium context, with projections for up to four years into the future.
  • It is published biannually and partly updated two times a year.
  • The WEO is released in April and September/October each year.
  • It portrays the world economy in the near and medium context, with projections for up to four years into the future.
  • WEO forecasts include key macroeconomic indicators, such as GDP, inflation, current account and fiscal balance of more than 180 countries around the globe.
  • It also deals with major economic policy issues.
Global Financial Stability Report (GSFR)

Why in news?

More progress needed as India’s non-performing assets is on a rise as per IMF’s April 2019 Global Financial Stability Report (GFSR).

About the report

  • The Global Financial Stability Report (GFSR) is a semiannual report that assesses the stability of global financial markets and emerging-market financing.
  • It provides an assessment of balance sheet vulnerabilities across financial and non-financial sectors in advanced and emerging market economies.
  • It is released by the International Monetary Fund (IMF).
  • It is released twice per year, in April and October.
  • The GFSR focuses on current conditions, especially financial and structural imbalances that could risk an upset in global financial stability and access to financing by emerging-market countries.
  • It emphasizes the ramifications of financial and economic imbalances that are highlighted in one of the IMF's other publications, the World Economic Outlook.
  • Topics covered in the GFSR usually include systemic risk assessments in worldwide financial markets, worldwide debt management, emerging economic markets and current economic crises that could affect finances worldwide.
World Press Freedom Prize

Why in news?

Jailed Reuter’s journalists in Myanmar win U.N. press freedom prize.

About World Press Freedom Prize

  • UNESCO/Guillermo Cano World Press Freedom Prize honours a person, organization or institution that has made an outstanding contribution to the defence and, or promotion of press freedom anywhere in the world, and especially when this has been achieved in the face of danger.
  • It was created in 1997.
  • It is awarded annually.
  • The Prize was established on the initiative of UNESCO's Executive Board and is formally conferred on the occasion of World Press Freedom Day, on 3 May.
  • It is named in honour of Guillermo Cano Isaza, a Colombian journalist who was assassinated in front of the offices of his newspaper El Espectador in Bogotá, Colombia on 17 December 1986.

Science and Technology

Event Horizon Telescope

Why in news?

The Event Horizon Telescope revealed the first ever photograph of the shadow of a black hole.

About the news

  • The image released shows the shadow of a supermassive black hole in the centre of Messier 87 (M87), an elliptical galaxy some 55 million light-years from Earth.
  • This black hole is 6.5 billion times the mass of the Sun.

About EHT

  • The EHT is a network of 10 radio telescopes on four continents that collectively operate like a single instrument nearly the size of the Earth.
  • The EHT project, an international partnership formed in 2012 is to directly observe the immediate environment of a black hole.
  • It aims to capture the first image of a black hole by creating a virtual Earth-sized telescope.
  • It is a project to create a large telescope array consisting of a global network of radio telescopes and combining data from several very-long-baseline interferometry (VLBI) stations around the Earth.
  • This technique of linking radio dishes across the globe to create an Earth-sized interferometer, has been used to measure the size of the emission regions of the two supermassive black holes.
  1. The supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* at the center of the Milky Way.
  2. The even larger black hole in the supergiant elliptical galaxy, Messier 87.

What is a black hole?

  • Black holes are extremely dense pockets of matter with incredible mass and minuscule volume.
  • They drastically warp the fabric of space-time and anything that passes too close gets sucked into it be it a wandering star or a photon of light.
  • It is a region in space where the pulling force of gravity is so strong that neither matter nor light can ever escape.
  • For anything approaching a black hole, the point of no return is called the “event horizon”.
  • Anything that comes within the event horizon will be consumed forever.
  • Because no light can escape from it, a black hole is invisible.

Current Affair Capsules

Meuller Report
  • It is the report of Special Counsel Robert Mueller’s investigation into Russian involvement in the 2016 United States presidential election.
Tobacco institute of India
  • The Tobacco Institute of India (TII), New Delhi is a representative body of farmers, manufacturers, exporters and ancillaries of the cigarettes’ segment of the tobacco industry in India, whose members account for more than 98% of the country’s domestic sales of duty paid cigarettes.
  • TII notes that India accounts for 84% of the world’s consumption of smokeless tobacco while accounting for low per capita consumption of cigarettes.

Map Aided Programme

Senkaku Islands
  • Group of uninhabited islands in the East China Sea.
  • Located east of Mainland China, northeast of Taiwan, west of Okinawa Island, and north of the southwestern end of the Ryukyu Islands.
  • Pinnacle Islands.
  • Disputed territory between Japan, China and Taiwan.

Previous Year Questions Revision Series (Pqrs)-(2013)

Consider the following statements:                                                                

  1. Inflation benefits the debtors.
  2. Inflation benefits the bond-holders.

Which of the statements given above is /are correct?

   (a) 1 only                                 (b) 2 only                                

   (c) Both 1 and 2                       (d) Neither 1 nor 2