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National Family Health Survey

Why in news?

Blame the litchi fruit or the intense heat waves, it is high time Bihar fights the scourge of malnutrition as 43.9 per cent of under-five children in Bihar are underweight, 15.2 per cent severely underweight and 20.8 per cent wasted as per the NFHS-4.

About NFHS

  • The National Family Health Survey (NFHS) is a large-scale, multi-round survey conducted in a representative sample of households throughout India.
  • The Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MOHFW) designated International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), Mumbai as the nodal agency, responsible for providing coordination and technical guidance for the NFHS.
 
  • NFHS was funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) with supplementary support from United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF).
  • IIPS collaborated with a number of Field Organizations (FO) for survey implementation.
  • Each FO was responsible for conducting survey activities in one or more states covered by the NFHS.

More about NFHS

  • Four rounds of National Family Health Survey (NFHS) were conducted in the country with the technical support of International Institute for Population Sciences, Mumbai.
  • 1992-93(NFHS 1)
  • 1998-99 (NFHS 2)
  • 2005-06 (NFHS-3)
  • 2015-16 (NFHS-4)
  • In NFHS-1, Srinagar region of Jammu and Kashmir was not covered due to Law and Order situation and Sikkim was also not covered as basic parameters for sample selection were not available.
  • NFHS-1, 2, 3 didn’t cover UTs except Delhi because the objective of the survey then was to provide State level estimates.
POCSO Act, 2012

Why in news?

A total of 36,022 cases were registered in 2016 under the Protection of Children from Sexual Offences (POCSO) Act, 2012.

About the news

  • The National and State Commissions for Protection of Child Rights have been mandated to monitor the implementation of the POCSO Act, in addition to MHA advisories to State and Union Territory governments to implement the law vigourously.

What is POCSO Act?

  • The Protection of Children from Sexual Offences Act (POCSO Act) 2012 was established to protect the children against offences like sexual abuse, sexual harassment and pornography.
  • It was formed to provide a child-friendly system for trial underneath which the perpetrators could be punished.
  • It also makes provisions for avoiding the re-victimisation of the child at the hands of the judicial system.

Features

  • The Act defines a child as any person below eighteen years of age.
  • The Act defines different forms of sexual abuse which includes penetrative and non-penetrative assault.
  • It makes it the legal duty of a person aware of the offence to report the sexual abuse.
  • In case he fails to do so, the person can be punished with six months’ imprisonment or fine.
  • The Act further states that the evidence of the child should be recorded within a period of thirty days.
  • The Special Court taking cognizance of the matter should be able to complete the trial within the period of
 
  • one year from the date of taking cognizance of the abuse.
  • It prescribes rigorous imprisonment for a term which shall not be less than ten years but which may extend to imprisonment for life and also fine as punishment for aggravated penetrative sexual assault.
  • It also prescribes punishment to the people who traffic children for sexual purposes.
Goods & Services Tax Council

Why in news?

The GST Council, the apex decision-making body for the levy, decided to extend the tenure of National Anti-profiteering Authority (NAA).

About the news

  • It approved the imposition of an additional penalty of up to 10% of the profiteered amount if companies don’t pay up fine in 30 days.

About GST Council

  • Goods & Services Tax Council is a constitutional body for making recommendations to the Union and State Government on issues related to Goods and Service Tax.
  • The GST Council is chaired by the Union Finance Minister.
  • The Constitution (One Hundred and Twenty-Second Amendment) Bill, 2016, for introduction of Goods and Services tax in the country was introduced in the Parliament and passed by Rajya Sabha on 3rd August, 2016 and by Lok Sabha on 8th August, 2016.
  • The President of India accorded assent on 8th September, 2016, and the same was notified as the Constitution (One Hundred and First Amendment) Act, 2016.
  • As per Article 279A (1) of the amended Constitution, the GST Council has to be constituted by the President within 60 days of the commencement of Article 279A.
  • As per Article 279A (4), the Council will make recommendations to the Union and the States on important issues related to GST.

Members

  • As per Article 279A of the amended Constitution, the GST Council which will be a joint forum of the Centre and the States, shall consist of the following members: -
  • The Union Finance Minister (Chairperson)
  • The Union Minister of State in charge of Revenue or Finance
  • The Minister in charge of Finance or Taxation or any other Minister nominated by each State Government
National Anti-profiteering Authority (NAA)

About NAA

  • The National Anti-profiteering Authority (NAA) is the institutional mechanism under GST law to check the unfair profit-making activities by the trading community.
  • The Authority’s core function is to ensure that the benefits of the reduction in GST rates on goods and services made by GST Council and proportional change in the Input tax credit passed on to the ultimate consumers and recipient
 
  • respectively byway of reduction in the prices by the suppliers.
  • The responsibility of NAA is to examine and check such profiteering activities and recommend punitive actions including cancellation of Registration.

Organizational structure

  • It is headed by a senior officer of the level of Secretary to the Government of India with four Technical Members from the Centre and/or the States.
  • A five-member committee, headed by Cabinet Secretary, comprising Revenue Secretary, CBEC Chairman and chief secretaries from two states, has been entrusted to finalize the chairman and members of the authority.
  • Initially, the authority had a sunset date of two years from the date on which the chairman assumes charge.
  • The chairman and the four members of the authority have to be less than 62 years.
  • Affected consumers may apply for relief to the Screening Committee in the particular State.

Procedures

  • In case the complaints with ‘All India’ nature, the application maybe directly made to the Standing Committee.
  • After forming a prima facie view that there is an element of profiteering, the Standing Committee shall refer the matter for detailed investigation to the Director General of Safeguards, CBEC, which shall report its findings to the NAA.
  • In the event the NAA confirms it, it has the authority to order the supplier / business concerned to reduce its prices or return the undue benefit availed by it along with interest to the recipient of the goods or services.
  • If the undue benefit cannot be passed on to the recipient, it can be ordered to be deposited in the Consumer Welfare Fund.

World Affairs

ASEAN Summit

Why in news?

Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) are expected to sign a “Bangkok Declaration” on fighting maritime waste, a first of its kind which promises to prevent and significantly reduce marine debris at the34th ASEAN Summit in Bangkok.

About ASEAN

  • The Association of Southeast Asian Nations is a regional intergovernmental organization comprising ten countries in Southeast Asia.
  • It was established in the year 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand, with the signing of the ASEAN Declaration (Bangkok Declaration).
  • ASEAN Secretariat is in, Jakarta, Indonesia.
  • The motto of ASEAN is “One Vision, One Identity, One Community”.

Membership

  • The founding Members of ASEAN are Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand.
  • Brunei Darussalam, Vietnam, Lao PDR, Myanmar and Cambodia joined later with Cambodia being the last member country to join in 1999.
  • India is not a member of ASEAN.

ASEAN Summits

  • The ASEAN Summit is a biannual meeting held by the members of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in relation to economic, political, security, and socio-cultural development of Southeast Asian countries.
  • The first ASEAN summit was held in Bali, Indonesia in the year 1976.
  • The ASEAN Summit is the supreme policy-making body of ASEAN.

Current Affair Capsules

Entity List
  • US blacklists five Chinese firms on the so-called Entity List which effectively bars US firms from selling technology to the Chinese organisations without government approval.
  • It is a list which includes the names of foreign persons, government organizations and companies that are subject to specific license requirements for the export of certain items.
Battle of Imphal
  • The Battle of Imphal took place in the region around the city of Imphal, Manipur in northeast India from March until July 1944 and 2019 marked the 75th anniversary of the Battle of Imphal.
  • Japanese armies attempted to destroy the Allied forces at Imphal and invade India, but were driven back into Burma with heavy losses.

Map Aided Programme     

National Parks of Mizoram
  • National Parks of Tripura
  • Clouded Leopard National Park
  • Rajbari National Park
  • The landscape is the natural habitat of various grasses

Previous Year Questions Revision Series (Pqrs)

  1. With reference to ‘Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana’, consider the following statements:
  2. Under this scheme, farmers will have to pay a uniform premium of two percent for any crop they cultivate in any season of the year.
  3. This scheme covers post-harvest losses arising out of cyclones and unseasonal rains.

Which of the statements given above is/are correct?

(a) 1 only                           (b) 2 only

  • Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2