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Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS)

Why in news?

The share of unemployed in different age groups, as per the recently released Periodic Labour Force Survey (PLFS) for 2017-18, shows that the higher unemployment has shifted to the 20-24 and 25-29 age groups as against the 15-19 age group earlier.

What is PLFS?

  • It is a nationwide Labour Force Survey launched by the NSSO.
  • Primary aim of the PLFS is to generate reasonably accurate indicators of labour market at a short span for every quarter for which speed of quality data collection and processing are important.
  • The PLFS provides quarterly employment and unemployment data.
  • It was launched from 1st April 2017.
  • Results of the PLFS will be brought out in the form of Annual Key Report.

Objectives

  • Quarterly changes of various indicators of the labour market in urban areas as well as to generate the annual estimates of different labour force indicators both in rural and urban areas are the supplementary objectives of the PLFS.
  • Annual estimates (for both rural and urban areas) would be generated for major param
 
  • eters like
  • Labour Force Participation Rate (LFPR)
  • Worker Population Ratio (WPR)
  • Unemployment Rate (UR)
  • Distribution of workers by industry, occupation, workers employed in informal sector
  • Conditions of employment of the workers.
  • Quarterly Bulletins
  • The Quarterly estimates (for urban areas only) would be generated for the key labour force parameters like
  • LFPR
  • WPR
  • UR in Current Weekly Status (CWS)

About NSSO

  • NSSO is one of the national organization which is responsible for conduct of large scale sample surveys in diverse fields on All India basis.
  • It comes under Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation.
Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS)

Why in news?

ICMR recommends ban on Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS) including e-cigarettes.

About ENDS

  • ENDS are devices that heat a solution to create an aerosol, which also frequently contains flavours, usually dissolved into propylene glycol and glycerin.
  • There are various types of ENDS devices like e-cigarettes, heat-not-burn devices, vape, e-sheesha, e-nicotine flavoured hookah among others.
  • The most common type is an e-cigarette that produces an aerosolised mixture of the flavoured liquids and nicotine, which is inhaled by the user.

About E-cigarette

  • An electronic cigarette is a battery-operated device that emits doses of vaporized nicotine, or non-nicotine solutions, for the user to inhale.
  • It simulates the feeling of tobacco smoking without smoke and doesn’t involve combustion.
  • They generate an aerosol, commonly called a “vapor“, for the user to inhale- commonly referred to as
  • At the discretion of the consumer it could contain different quantities of nicotine.
  • E-cigs do not let off tobacco smell and do not produce ash.
  • Most e-cigarettes consist of three different components:
  1. A cartridge, which holds a liquid solution containing varying amounts of nicotine, flavorings, and other chemicals
  2. A heating device (vaporizer)
  3. A power source (usually a battery)
Serious Fraud Investigation Office (SFIO)

Why in news?

Timely intervention by the Reserve Bank could have led to the crisis at the Infrastructure Leasing & Financial Services Ltd (IL&FS) being detected earlier, the Serious Fraud Investigation Office has said.

About SFIO

  • The Serious Fraud Investigation Office (SFIO) is a corporate fraud investigating agency in India.
  • SFIO is a multi-disciplinary organization, consisting of experts in the field of accountancy, forensic auditing, law, information technology, investigation, company law, capital market and taxation for detecting and prosecuting or recommending for prosecution white-collar crimes/frauds.
  • It is under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of Corporate Affairs, Government of India.
  • The SFIO is involved in major fraud probes and is the coordinating agency with the Income Tax Department and the Central Bureau of Investigation.
  • Vajpayee Government decided to setup SFIO on 9 January 2003 based on the recommendation of Naresh Chandra Committee on corporate governance.
  • SFIO has head office in New Delhi and regional offices in Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and West Bengal.

History and Culture

Irula Community

Why in news?

The rock paintings in Karikiyoor at Kil Kotagiri in the Nilgiri forests have been destroyed by trekkers, tourists and the members of the Irula tribal community, who have an ancestral link to the site, were “extremely angered” and “disturbed” at the damage by illegal trekkers,

Tribal Communities in Conservation

Tribe

Conservation effort/Traditional Knowledge help

Location

Features

Irula

Vulture conservation in Mudumalai tiger reserve

An Adivasi group inhabiting the area of the Nilgiri mountains, in Tamil Nadu and Kerala

ü  A scheduled tribe

ü  Speak Irula, which belongs to the Dravidian family.

ü  They have a dark skin complexion.

ü  Traditional occupation was snake and rat catching.

Muthuvan

Helped British to identify the best valleys and hillslopes in Anamalai Mountains for tea and coffee plantations.

Forested areas of the southern Western Ghats

ü  Loyal subjects of the dynasty of Madurai, migrated to Kerala according to tribal legend.

ü  Literal meaning of “Muthuvar” is elders.

ü  Very independent and reluctant to interact with the outside world.

ü  Grows ragi, cardamom, banana, tapioca and lemon grass.

Kadar

Helped British to identify the best valleys and hillslopes in Anamalai Mountains for tea and coffee plantations.

Forested areas of the southern Western Ghats, Kerala

ü  Also identifies as Kadir and converse in an ancient language which is a blend of both Tamil and Malayalam languages

ü  Nomadic

ü  one of the six endangered food gatherers

ü  maintain their originality and culture without adapting the changes

ü  Widow Remarriage is not allowed

ü  Polygamy is prevalent

Kani

Identification of the only tree crab of the Western Ghats (Kani maranjandu)

Western Ghats area of Kerala

ü  Their use of the forest plant ‘arogyapacha’ as a key ingredient in an herbal remedy called Jeevani was commercialized.

Adi

Soil Conservation in the North East

ü  Arunachal Pradesh

ü  Tibet (called Lhoba along with Mishmi)

ü  The Adi are recognized as one of the 56 ethnic groups of China.

ü  The older term Abor is a exonym from Assamese and its literal meaning is "independent"

ü  The literal meaning ofadi is "hill" or "mountain top".

ü  The language spoken by this group is also called Adi. They also speak Nefamese

ü  Practice wet rice cultivation and have a considerable agricultural economy.

ü  Traditionally follow the tribal Donyi-Polo religion.

Toda

Shola-cum-grassland conservation

Nilgiri Mountains of Tamil Nadu.

ü  A Dravidian ethnic group

ü  Traditionally live in settlements called mund.

ü  Their economy was pastoral, based on the buffalo.

ü  Toda religion features the sacred buffalo.

ü  Fraternal polyandry has now been completely abandoned.

Malasar

Traditional custom of wild tuber harvesting.

ü  Parambikulam Tiger Reserve, Kerala

ü  Tamil Nadu

ü  A scheduled tribe

ü  One of the earliest known inhabitants of the Western Ghats, in Anaimalai Hills.

ü  Malasar is also an unclassified Southern Dravidian language

Soliga/ Sholaga

Traditional control of invasive lantana in Biligiri-rangaswamy Hills Wildlife Sanctuary in southern Karnataka.

ü  Biligiri-ranga Hills, Karnataka

ü  Chamarajanagar and Erode, Tamil Nadu.

ü  A scheduled tribe

ü  Speak Sholaga, which belongs to the Dravidian family.

ü  Used to practice shifting cultivation.

ü  Follow naturism and animism along with some Hindu practices.

Science and Technology

NIPAH Virus

Why in news?

 

Kerala man being examined for Nipah, no confirmation yet.

What is Nipah Virus infection?

  • Nipah virus (NiV) infection is a newly emerged zoonosis that causes severe disease in both animals and humans.
  • It is a zoonotic disease of public health importance in the WHO South East Asia region with a high case fatality rate estimated to range between 40 and 75 per cent.
  • The Nipah virus is a type of RNA virus in the genus Henipavirus.
  • The virus can be transmitted to humans from animals (such as bats or pigs).
  • The natural host of the virus are fruit bats of the Pteropodidae Family, Pteropus genus.

History of Outbreak

  • It was first recognised in 1998-99 during an outbreak among pig farmers in Malaysia and Singapore.
  • NiV was first identified during an outbreak of disease that took place in Kampung Sungai Nipah, Malaysia in 1998.
  • The virus is named after this village.
  • On this occasion, pigs were the intermediate hosts.
  • In Bangladesh in 2004, humans became infected with NiV as a result of consuming date palm sap that had been contaminated by infected fruit bats.
  • Human-to-human transmission has also been documented.

Symptoms

  • Initial symptoms are fever, headache, drowsiness followed by disorientation and mental confusion.
  • NiV infection in humans has a range of clinical presentations, from asymptomatic infection to acute respiratory syndrome and fatal encephalitis.
  • NiV is also capable of causing disease in pigs and other domestic animals.

Treatment

  • There is no vaccine for either humans or animals.
  • The primary treatment for human cases is intensive supportive care.

How do doctors diagnose Nipah?

  • Serology- blood tests to see the antibodies
  • Histopathology- microscopic study of tissues
  • PCR- Polymerase Chain Reaction technique to look for viral DNA
  • Virus isolation

Confirmatory tests

  • Serum Neutralization Test
  • ELISA
  • RT-PCR
  • The Nipah virus is classified as a biosecurity level (BSL) 4 agent and the tests should be carried out in special labs to prevent its spread.

Why culling of fruit bats not an effective measure?

  • Fruit bats aid the distribution of plants (and therefore forests) by carrying the fruits with them and spitting the seeds or eliminating them elsewhere. This relationship between plants and bats is a form of mutualism known as "chiropterophily".
  • Examples of plants that benefit from this arrangement include the baobabs of the genus Adansonia and the sausage tree.
  • Culling them will cause disturbance to biodiversity and also will result in protests from environment activists.