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National Stock Exchange (NSE) of India

Why in news?

The Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) ordered the National Stock Exchange of India (NSE) to pay a fine of about ₹1,000 crore within 45 days for its supervisory laxity that led to some of its broker-clients gaining preferential access to certain market data.

What is the National Stock Exchange of India Limited (NSE)?

  • The National Stock Exchange of India Limited (NSE) is India's largest financial market.
  • It was incorporated in 1992.
  • The National Stock Exchange of India Limited was the first exchange in India to provide modern, fully automated electronic trading.
  • National Stock Exchange has a total market capitalization of more than US$2.27 trillion, making it the world's 11th-largest stock exchange as of April 2018.

Formation

 
  • The exchange, unlike Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE), was the result of the recommendations of a high-powered group set up to study the establishment of new stock exchanges, which would operate on a pan-India basis.
  • It was set up by a group of Indian financial institutions with the goal of bringing greater transparency to the Indian capital market.
  • Its shareholders consist of 20 financial institutions including state-owned banks and insurance companies.
  • It is headquartered in Mumbai

Index

  • S&P CNX Nifty is the benchmark index introduced by NSE.
  • The flagship index, the NIFTY 50, represents about 63% of total market capitalization listed on the exchange.
  • The index itself covers 12 sectors of the Indian economy across 50 stocks.
  • Besides the NIFTY 50 Index, the National Stock Exchange maintains market indices that track various market capitalizations, volatility, specific sectors, and factor strategies.

What all it offers?

  • NSE offers capital raising abilities for corporations and a trading platform for equities, debt, and derivatives including currencies and mutual fund units.
  • It allows for new listings, initial public offers (IPOs), debt issuances and Indian Depository Receipts (IDRs) by overseas companies raising capital in India.

Environment

Green Rating for Integrated Habitat Assessment (GRIHA)

Why in news?

GRIHA Council launches rating system to evaluate environmental performance of schools.

About GRIHA rating

  • GRIHA is India's own green building rating system.
  • It is part of mitigation strategy for combating climate change as highlighted in INDIA's INDC.
  • This rating tool helps people assesses the performance of their building against certain nationally acceptable benchmarks.
  • It evaluates the environmental performance of a building holistically over its entire life cycle, thereby providing a definitive standard for what constitutes a ‘green building’.
  • The rating system, based on accepted energy and environmental principles, will seek to strike a balance between the established practices and emerging concepts, both national and international.
  • It was founded by TERI (The Energy and Resources Institute, New Delhi) with support from MNRE.

 

GRIHA for Existing Buildings

Eligibility

  • All buildings, which are in the design stage and have built up area more than 2,500 m2, are eligible for certification under GRIHA.
  • GRIHA-EB are given for those existing buildings which are having a built-up area greater than 2,500 sq. m.
  • Mainly a building is assessed based on its predicted performance over its entire life cycle, inception through operation.

Different Stages for Evaluvation

  • Pre-construction stage
  • Building planning and construction stages
  • Building operation and maintenance stage

Criteria and their weightage

  • It is a performance-oriented systemwhere points are earned for meeting the design and performance intent of the criteria.
  • Each criterion has certain points assigned to it.
  • It means that a project demonstrating compliance with a criterion would achieve the associated points.
  • The point would be given out of total of 100.
  • Different levels of certification (one star to five stars) are awarded based on the number of points earned.
  • Different Rating criteria are used for large buildings, existing buildings and so on.
Purple Frog

Why in news?

Purple frog, believed to have co-existed with dinosaurs, set to be crowned Kerala’s state amphibian.

About Purple Frog

  • The purple frog, also known as pignose frog, was first discovered in 2003 in the Idukki district of Kerala.
  • It is endemic to the Western Ghats in India.
  • This species has been acknowledged as one of the rarest kinds and a ‘once in a century find’.
  • Once it lays its eggs, the bloated frogs characterised by a protruding snout and powerful hind legs return to the earth’s deepest layers.
  • The purple frog has a bloated body with short stout limbs and is dark purple to greyish in colour.
  • Unlike other frogs, it has very short hind legs, which does not allow it to leap from one spot to another.
  • This burrow-dwellingfrog prefers loose, damp and well-aerated soil close to ponds and ditches or streams.

Conservation Status

  • Endangered under IUCN Red list.

More about the frog

  • The rare and endangered soil-dwelling purple frog (Nasikabatrachus sahyadrensis)begins its life as a tadpole in certain fast-flowing streams of the Western Ghats.
  • The speed with which water flows down these streams is one of the main factors that determine the presence and aggregation of these tadpoles.
 
  • tadpole is the larval stagein the life cycle of an amphibian, particularly that of a frog or toad.
  • The tadpoles are rheophilic, which means they thrive in running water.
  • The tadpoles tended to gather in large numbers only in areas with relatively higher water flow velocity.
  • They also preferred steep, rocky slopes (65°-90° incline) and a water depth of 2-3 cm.
White Tiger

Why in news?

An 18-year-old white tiger, the last one inhabiting the Sanjay Gandhi National Park in Mumbai, died due to age-related ailments.

About White Tiger

  • The white tiger or bleached tiger is a pigmentation variant of the Bengal tiger.
  • They’re not albino or their own separate species.
  • White tigers occur when two Bengal tigers that carry a recessive gene controlling coat color are bred together.
  • For a white Bengal tiger to be born, both parents must carry the unusual gene for white colouring, which only happens naturally about once in 10,000 births.
  • The white fur caused by a lack of the pigment pheomelanin, which is found in Bengal tigers with orange color fur.

Comparison with Bengal Tiger

  • When compared to Bengal tigers, the white Bengal tigers tend to grow faster and heavier than the orange Bengal tiger.
  • They also tend to be somewhat bigger at birth, and as fully grown adults.

Habitat

  • They are reported in the wild in the Indian states of Madhya Pradesh, Assam, West Bengal and Bihar in the Sunderbans region and especially in the former State of Rewa.

World Affairs

IPBES

Why in news?

One million species at risk of extinction, UN report warns.

About the news

  • The study by the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) known as the Global Assessment, found that up to one million of Earth’s estimated eight million plant, insect and animal species is at risk of extinction, many within decades.
  • This is the IPBES’ first report which can been seen as a ‘state of nature’ report.
  • It ranks “five direct drivers” that cause changes in nature that have the largest relative global impact in descending order.
  1. Changes in land and sea use
  2. Direct exploitation of organisms
 
  • Climate change
  1. Pollution
  2. Invasive alien species

About IPBES

  • The Intergovernmental science-policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) is an independent intergovernmental body.
  • It is established to strengthen the science-policy interface for biodiversity and ecosystem services for the conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity, long-term human well-being and sustainable development.
  • It was established in Panama City, on 21 April 2012 by 94 governments.
  • IPBES is placed under the auspices of four United Nations entities: UNEP, UNESCO, FAO and UNDP.
  • It is administered by the United Nations Environment Programme.
  • The IPBES secretariat is based in Bonn, Germany.

Map Aided Programme

NURSULTAN

Why in news?

  • Kazakhstan renames capital from Astana to Nursultan.
  • It is named after ex-Presiden Nursultan Nazarbayev.

Location

  • Kazakhstan is the world’s largest landlocked
  • It is a transcontinental country largely located in Asia: the most western parts are in Europe.
  • Kazakhstan shares borders with Russia ,China ,
    Kyrgyzstan , Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan and
    also adjoins a large part of the Caspian Sea.

Previous Year Questions Revision Series (Pqrs)-(2013)

  1. What are the benefits of implementing the ‘Integrated Watershed Development Programme’?
  2. Prevention of soil runoff
  3. Linking the country’s perennial rivers with seasonal rivers
  4. Rainwater harvesting and recharge of groundwater table
  5. Regeneration of natural vegetation

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2 only                

(b) 2, 3 and 4 only            

(c) 1, 3 and 4 only

(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4