Why in news?
Amazon said it will make products from the Tribal Cooperative Marketing Development Federation of India (Trifed) available on its global marketplace.
About the news
- Trifed products were earlier available only on Amazon’s India marketplace.
- It is the Amazon Global programme under which Indian sellers can sell on Amazon’s 11 other global marketplaces.
- It is a national-level apex organization functioning under the administrative control of Ministry of Tribal Affairs, Govt. of India.
- TRIFED was established with core objective of institutionalizing the trade of Minor Forest Produce (MFP) and Surplus Agriculture Produce (SAP) collected/cultivated by tribals.
- It was established in August 1987 by the then Ministry of Welfare, Government of India, under the Multi State Cooperative Societies Act 1984.
- It has a network of 31 retail outlets called “TRIBES INDIA”, 37 consignment outlets of various State Emporia and 16 franchised outlets.
- The approach of marketing development of tribal products envisages TRIFED’s role as a facilitator and service provider.
- It also works as an agency to the FCI for procurement of Wheat and Rice.
- TRIFED has its registered and Head Office located in New Delhi and has a network of 13 Regional Offices located at various places in the country.
- National Tribal Craft Expo for promoting and marketing tribal products.
- It also facilitates the participation of tribal artisans to enable them to interact directly with art lovers to assessthe market needs.
- TRIFED’s websites – www.tribesindia.com, www.trifed.in and Retail Inventory Softwareand M-commerce app for marketing tribal products.
Tribes India Banners
- Brand for marketing tribal products through e-commerce portal like Amazon,Snapdeal, Paytm&GeM.
- TRIFED also organises National Tribal Craft Expo called “AADISHILP”, painting exhibition called “AadiChitra”, “OCTAVE” for North Eastern Artisans and Tribal Artisan Melas to facilitate the sale of their products.
Air Quality Index
Why in news?
Delhi ozone level went beyond limit for 95 days in last 3 years according to the Air Quality Index of the Central Pollution Control Board.
What is AQI?
- Air Quality Index is a tool for effective communication of air quality status to people in terms, which are easy to understand.
- It transforms complex air quality data of various pollutants into a single number (index value), nomenclature and colour.
- ‘One Number- One Colour-One Description’ for the common man to judge the air quality within his vicinity.
- It was launched by Ministry of Environment and Forests in 2014.
- The index was prepared by an expert group set up by MoEFCC that included prominent medical doctors from leading hospitals, research bodies including IIT Kanpur, and CSE.
About the measurement
- Each of these categories is decided based on ambient concentration values of air pollutants and their likely health impacts (known as health breakpoints).
- AQ sub-index and health breakpoints are evolved for eight pollutants
- PM10 (particulate matter 10 micrometers or less in diameter)
- PM 2.5 (particulate matter 2.5)
- NO2 (Nitrogen dioxide)
- SO2 (Sulfur dioxide)
- CO (Carbon Monoxide)
- O3 (Ozone)
- NH3 (Ammonia)
- Pb (Lead)
- For all these short-term (up to 24-hours) National Ambient Air Quality Standards are prescribed.
- The primary pollutant in most of the Indian cities is PM 2.5, or particles that are smaller than 2.5 microns and linked to respiratory illnesses.
Related Information (PLUS)
- SAFAR is a research based initiative of integrating Air Quality with Health Advisories and Food Security.
- SAFAR stands for System of Air Quality and Weather Forecasting (SAFAR).
- It is under Ministry of Earth Sciences.
- It provides frontier research based scientific accredited robust Air Quality Forecasting system for Indian Metropolitan Cites.
More about SAFAR
- The colour LED display gives out real-time air quality index on 24×7 basis with colour coding along with 72-hour advance forecast.
- It was developed indigenously by Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology, Pune and operationalized by India Meteorological Department (IMD).
- It will also measure sun’s UV-Index and skin advisories will be issued on display.
- It will provide measurement of online automatic ultrafine particles PM1 and Mercury, both of which have direct relevance to human health.
- Project SAFAR is implemented in four cities of India which includes Delhi, Pune, Mumbai and Ahmedabad as an operational service.
- In addition to regular air quality parameters like PM 2.5, PM10, Sulfur Dioxide, Ozone, Nitrogen Oxides, Carbon Monoxide, the system will also monitor the existence of Benzene, Toluene and Xylene.
International Whaling Commission
Why in news?
Japan withdrew from the International Whaling Commission as announced earlier after more than 60 years of membership.
About the news
- The withdrawal comes into effect on June 30, 2019.
- The Japanese whalers will be able to resume hunting in Japanese coastal waters of minke and other whales currently protected by the IWC.
- But Japan will not be able to continue scientific research hunts in the Antarctic that it has been exceptionally allowed as an IWC member under the Antarctic Treaty.
- It will be limited to Japan’s territorial waters and exclusive economic zones.
- With this, Japan joins Iceland and Norway in openly defying the IWC’s ban on commercial whale hunting.
- Whaling is considered an important part of Japan’s traditions.
The International Whaling Commission
- The International Whaling Commission (IWC) is the global body charged with the conservation of whales and the management of whaling.
- The IWC currently has 89 member governments from countries all over the world.
- All members are signatories to the International Convention for the Regulation of Whaling (ICRW).
- This Convention is the legal framework which established the IWC in 1946.
- Uncertainty over whale numbers led to the introduction of a ‘moratorium’ on commercial whaling in 1986.
- The Commission also works to understand and address a wide range of non-whaling threats to cetaceans including entanglement, ship strike, marine debris, climate change and other environmental concerns.
- The headquarters of the IWC is in Impington, England.
Related Information (PLUS)
About Minke whales
- Minke whales are members of the baleen whale family and are the smallest of the "great whales" or rorquals.
- Rorqual whales are relatively streamlined in appearance and have pointed heads and small pointed fins.
- They can be distinguished from other whales by many deep groves along their throats that expand when they feed.
- They are the most abundant rorqual in the world, and their population status is considered stable throughout almost their entire range.
Why in news?
RTGS, NEFT money transfer to cost less from today.
- It is a system where there is continuous and real-time settlement of fund-transfers, individually on a transaction by transaction basis (without netting).
- The acronym 'RTGS' stands for Real Time Gross Settlement.
- 'Real Time' means the processing of instructions at the time they are received.
- 'Gross Settlement' means that the settlement of funds transfer instructions occurs individually.
- The payments under RTGS are final and irrevocable.
- RTGS is not a 24x7 system.
- Currently, the RTGS service window for customer transactions is available to banks from 8 am to 6 PM.
- The RTGS system is primarily meant for large value transactions.
- The minimum amount to be remitted through RTGS is ₹2, 00,000/-.
- There is no upper or maximum ceiling.
- National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT) is an electronic funds transfer system maintained by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI).
- The setup was established and maintained by Institute for Development and Research in Banking Technology (IDRBT) in November 2005.
- It enables bank customers in India to transfer funds between any two NEFT-enabled bank accounts on a one-to-one basis.
- It is done via electronic messages.
- Unlike Real-time gross settlement (RTGS), fund transfers through the NEFT system do not occur in real-time basis.
- NEFT settles fund transfers in half-hourly batches with 23 settlements occurring between 8:00 AM and 7:00 PM on week days and the 1st, 3rd and 5th Saturday of the calendar month.
- Transfers initiated outside this time period are settled at the next available window.
- No settlements are made on the second and fourth Saturday of the month, or on Sundays, or on public holidays.
- The minimum amount transferred can be as low as Rs.1 and there is no maximum amount assigned by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) for NEFT Transactions.
- However, maximum amount per transaction is limited to ₹ 50,000/- for cash-based remittances within India.x
Difference between RTGS and NEFT
- National Electronic Funds Transfer (NEFT) is an electronic fund transfer system in which the transactions received up to a particular time are processed in batches.
- Contrary to this, in RTGS, the transactions are processed continuously on a transaction by transaction basis throughout the RTGS business hours.
Current Affair Capsules
- Tamil Yeoman is the official State Butterfly of Tamil NaduTamil Nadu on the lines of the State Tree (Palm), Bird (Emerald Dove), Flower (Gloriosa) and Animal (Nilgiri Tahr).
- With this, TN has become only the fifth state, alongside Maharashtra (Blue Mormon), Uttarakhand (Common peacock), Karnataka (Southern Bird Wing) and Kerala (Papilio Buddha), to have a State Butterfly.
Map Aided Programme
MAJOR CROPS IN INDIA
- It grows well on well-drained fertile soils in the flood plains where soils are renewed every year.
- High temperature is required during the time of growth.
- Varieties : Tossa Jute and White Jute
- Due to its high cost, it is losing market to synthetic fibres and packing materials, particularly the nylon.
- West Bengal, Odisha, Bihar, Assam, Andhra Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh and Meghalaya are the major jute producing states.
Previous Year Questions Revision Series (Pqrs)
- Consider the following rivers:
Which of the above are tributaries of Godavari?
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only (b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 2 and 4only (d) 2 and 3 only