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Government Interventions

Pradhan Mantri Rozgar Protsahan Yojana

Why in news?

The total number of employees benefited under Pradhan Mantri Rojgar Protsahan Yojana (PMRPY) from 01.04.2016 to 31.03.2019 is 1.18 crore.

About the yojana

  • Pradhan Mantri Rozgar Protsahan Yojana (PMRPY) is the flagship scheme of the Central Government for employment generation.
  • It has been designed to incentivise employers for generation of new employment,
  • It was announced on August 07, 2016.
  • It is being implemented by Ministry of Labour and Employment through the Employees’ Provident Fund Organization (EPFO).
  • Under the scheme, Government is paying full employers’ contribution of 12% (towards Employees’ Provident Fund and Employees’ Pension Scheme both), for a period of 3 years in respect of new employees who have been registered with the EPFO on or after 1st April 2016, with salary up to Rs. 15,000 per month.
  • The entire system is online and AADHAR based with no human interface in the implementation of the scheme.
  • The terminal date for registration of beneficiaries through an establishment under the PMRPY is March 31, 2019.
 
  • PMRPY has a dual benefit
  1. The employer is incentivised for increasing the employee base in the establishment through payment of EPF contribution of 12% of wage which otherwise would have been borne by the employer.
  2. A direct benefit is that these workers have access to social security benefit through Provident Fund, Pension and Death Linked Insurance.
National Medical Commission

Why in news?

The Union cabinet cleared the bill to set up National Medical Commission (NMC), which will have responsibilities such as approving and assessing medical colleges, conducting common MBBS entrance and exit examinations and regulating course fees.

About the bill

  • The National Medical Commission Bill 2019 proposes to repeal the Indian Medical Council Act, 1956.
  • NMC will replace the Medical Council of India (MCI), which was dissolved in 2010 following corruption charges.

Features of the Bill

Composition

  • It provides for a 25-member National Medial Commission (NMC) to regulate medical education in the country.

Separate Boards

  • It will have four separate boards overseeing functions like
  1. The Medical Assessment and Rating Board (MARB)
  2. The Under-Graduate Medical Education Board
  3. The Post-Graduate Medical Education Board
  4. The Ethics and Medical Registration Board

Hybrid Structure

  • Compared to MCI, a primarily elected body with nominees from the state or centre, NMC will have a "hybrid structure" with a few non-medical members and primacy for selected members.

Medical Advisory Council

  • The bill envisages a government-constituted 64- member Medical Advisory Council to act as the primary platform for states to give views and raise concerns related to medical education.
  • Autonomous boards will be under state medical councils.
  • The strength of autonomous boards under state medical councils has been increased from 3 to 5, including 2 part-time members.

Regulation of Fees

  • NMC will regulate fees and all other charges for 50% seats in private medical colleges and deemed universities.
  • The Medical Assessment and Rating Board (MARB) under NMC will assess medical colleges and develop a system for ranking them.

Exit Exams

  • Medical graduates have to pass through a common exit exam before practising or pursuing PG courses.
  • The common final year MBBS exam will now be known as National Exit Test (NEXT) to start medical practice, seek admissions to post-graduate medical courses and as a screening test for foreign medical graduates.

Less Red-tape

 
  • Earlier, medical colleges required the MCI’s approval for establishment, recognition, renewal of recognition and even to increase the number of students they admitted.
  • Under the new bill, the powers of the regulator are reduced to establishment and recognition.
International Solar Alliance

Why in news?

Palau became the 76th country to sign the ISA Framework Agreement, which till date has been ratified by a total of 54 of the 76 countries.

About International Solar Alliance

  • International Solar Alliance (ISA) is a coalition of solar resource rich countries lying fully or partially between the Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn to specifically address energy needs by harnessing solar energy.
  • The alliance is a treaty-based inter-governmental organization.
  • It is a major global initiative for contributing to the implementation of the Paris Climate Agreement through rapid and massive deployment of solar energy.
  • Countries that do not fall within the Tropics can join the alliance and enjoy all benefits as other members, with the exception of voting rights.
  • It aims to deploy over 1,000 gigawatt of solar energy and mobilise more than USD 1,000 billion into solar power by 2030.
  • The ISA, headquartered in India, has its Secretariat located in the campus of National Institute of Solar Energy, Gurugram, Haryana.

More about ISA

  • The ISA is an Indian initiative, jointly launched by India and France in 2015 on the sidelines of COP-21, the UN Climate Conference in Paris.
  • The agreement was opened for signature during the COP22 at Marrakech on November 15, 2016.
  • The First Assembly of the ISA was held in New Delhi in October 2018.
  • Members take coordinated actions through Programmes and activities launched on a voluntary basis.
  • Three programmes have been launched
  1. Scaling Solar Applications for Agriculture Use
  2. Affordable Finance at Scale
  3. Scaling Solar Mini-grids
  • In addition to the existing 3 programmes, ISA has initiated plans to launch two more programmes:
  1. Scaling Solar Rooftops
  2. Scaling Solar E-mobility and Storage.
  • Further, ISA has also been developing a Common Risk Mitigating Mechanism (CRMM) for de-risking and reducing the financial cost of solar projects in the ISA member countries
  • Another major initiative is establishment of Digital Infopedia which will serve as a platform to enable policy makers, to interact and collaborate with one another.
 
  • It will not duplicate or replicate the efforts of International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA), Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership (REEEP), International Energy Agency (IEA), Renewable Energy Policy Network for the 21st Century (REN21), United Nations bodies, bilateral organizations etc. that are currently engaged in.

World Affairs

Interpol

Why in news?

Based on Red Corner notices, 27 accused persons extradited to India till 1st April 2019.

About the news

  • Red Notice is issued by Interpol and is meant to facilitate quick location and arrest of a person abroad and providing the information to the national agency / authority on whose request the Notice was issued.
  • The Red Notice is not a pre-requisite for and may not necessarily lead to the extradition of a fugitive offender for which there is a separate legal process to be followed.

About Interpol

  • INTERPOL is global police co-operation agency and a non-governmental
    organization (NGO).
  • Its work focuses on public safety and battling terrorism, crimes against humanity,
    genocide, war crimes, environmental crime etc.
  • It was established as the International Criminal Police Commission (ICPC) in
  • Its headquarters is located at Lyon, France.
  • It is the 2nd-largest international organization after the United Nations in terms of
    international representation with 190 member countries.

Notices issued by interpol

Notice

Purpose/ Meaning

Red Notice

ü  To seek the location and arrest of wanted persons with a view of extradition or similar lawful action

Yellow Notice

ü  To Help locate missing persons, often minors, or to help identify persons who are unable to identify themselves

Orange Notice

ü  To warn of an event, a person, an object or a process representing a serious and imminent threat to public safety

Green Notice

ü  To provide warnings and intelligence about persons who have committed criminal offences and are likely to repeat these crimes in other countries

Blue Notice

ü  To collect additional information about a person’s identity, location or activities in relation to a crime

Purple Notice

ü  To seek or provide information on modus operandi, objects, devices and concealment methods used by criminals

Black Notice

ü  To seek information on unidentified bodies

Interpol-UN security Council Special Notice

ü  Issued for groups and individuals who are the targets of UN Security Council Sanctions committees

International Court of Justice
 

Why in news?

Pakistan must review Kulbhushan Jadhav’s death sentence, rules International Court of Justice.

About International Court of Justice

  • The International Court of Justice (ICJ) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations.
  • The ICJ was established in 1945 by the San Francisco Conference, which also created the UN.
  • All members of the UN are parties to the statute of the ICJ, and non-members may also become parties.
  • The court’s inaugural sitting was in 1946.
  • The seat of the Court is at the Peace Palace in The Hague (Netherlands).
  • The ICJ’s precursor was the Permanent Court of International Justice, which fell into irrelevance owing to the inability to enforce its mandate, especially during the intervening war years.
  • Of the six principal organs of the United Nations, it is the only one not located in NewYork.
  • The Court’s role is to settle, in accordance with international law, legal disputes submitted to it by States and to give advisory opinions on legal questions referred to it by authorized United Nations organs and specialized agencies.
  • It is assisted by a Registry, its administrative organ.

Composition and seat of ICJ

  • The ICJ is a continuing and autonomous body that is permanently in session.
  • It consists of 15 judges, no two of whom may be nationals of the same state, who are elected to nine-year terms by majority votes in the UN General Assembly and the Security Council.
  • The judges, one-third of whom are elected every three years, are eligible for re-election.
  • The judges elect their own president and vice-president, each of whom serves a three-year term, and can appoint administrative personnel as necessary.
  • The seat of the ICJ is at The Hague, Netherlands.
  • The official languages of the court are French and English.
  • Please note: Do not confuse ICJ with International Criminal Court and the Permanent Court of Arbitration. All three are different entities set up for different purposes.

Enforcement of ICJ’s judgments

  • The ICJ decides disputes in accordance with international law as reflected in international conventions, international custom, general principles of law recognised by civilised nations, judicial decisions, and writings of the most highly qualified experts on international law.
  • The court’s judgment is final and without appeal.
  • The court itself has no powers of enforcement.
  • However, Article 94 of the Charter of the United Nations states that, “If any party to a case fails to perform the obligations incumbent upon it under a judgment rendered by the Court, the other party may have recourse to the Security Council, which may, if it deems necessary, make recommendations or decide upon measures to be taken to give effect to the judgment.”

Map Aided Programme     

MAJOR CROPS  IN  INDIA

Coffee

  • Varieties :  Arabica and Robusta
  • The Arabica variety initially brought from Yemen is produced in the country.
  • This variety is in great demand all over the world.
  • Intially its cultivation was introduced on the Baba Budan Hills and even today its cultivation is confined to the Nilgiri in Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.
  • Coffee needs hot and humid climate with temperature varying between 15°C and 28°C. It is generally grown under shady trees.
  • Dry weather is necessary at the time of ripening of berries.
  • Rainfall between 150 to 250 cm is favorable for coffee cultivation.
  • Major coffee producing states of India are Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Previous Year Questions Revision Series (Pqrs)

  1. Which one of the following pairs of islands is separated from each other by the “Ten Degree Channel”?

(a)  Andaman and Nicobar

(b)  Nicobar ad Sumatra

(c)  Maldives and Lakshadweep

(d)  Sumatra and Java