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Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015

Why in news?

The Mumbai city Juvenile Justice Board as well as a children’s court directed that the 17-year-old booked for the murder of his three-year-old neighbour be tried as an adult under the Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection) Act, 2015.

When is a child tried as an adult?

  • The Juvenile Justice Act of 2000 was amended in 2015 with a provision allowing for Children in Conflict with Law (CCL) to be tried as adults under certain circumstances.
  • The Act defines a child as someone who is under age 18.
  • For a CCL, age on the date of the offence is the basis for determining whether he or she was a child or an adult.
 
  • The amended Act distinguishes children in the age group 16-18 as a category which can be tried as adults if they are alleged to have committed a heinous offence, one that attracts a minimum punishment of seven years.
  • The Act does not, however, make it mandatory for all children in this age group to be tried as adults.
  • As per Section 15 of the JJ Act, there are three criteria that the Juvenile Justice Board in the concerned district should consider while conducting a preliminary assessment to determine whether the child should be tried as an adult or under the juvenile justice system, which prescribes a maximum term of three years in a special home.
  • The criteria are
  • Whether the child has the mental and physical capacity to commit such an offence
  • Whether the child has the ability to understand its consequences
  • Whether the child has the ability to understand the circumstances in which the offence was committed.
  • If the Board finds that the child can be tried as an adult, the case is transferred to a designated children’s court, which again decides whether the Board’s decision is correct.

About Juvenile Justice Act

  • The Juvenile Justice (Care and Protection of Children) Act, 2015 came into force 15 January 2016.
  • Ministry: Ministry of Woman and Child Development

Key Features

  • Aims at ensuring protection, proper care, development and social reintegration of children in difficult circumstances by adopting a child-friendly approach
  • Permits trying of juveniles between the ages of 16 and 18 years as adults for heinous offences.
  • Establishment of Child Welfare Committees (CWC) along with Juvenile Justice Boards (JJB) in each district.
  • Empowers JJB to examine the nature of crime and decide whether it was committed as a child mind or as an adult mind.
  • Based upon the preliminary inquiry of JJB, juvenile offender will be either sent for rehabilitation or will be tried as an adult.
  • The CWC will determine institutional care for juvenile in need of care and protection. Prescribes eligibility of adoptive parents and the procedure for adoption.
  • To streamline adoption procedures for orphan, abandoned and surrendered children, the existing Central Adoption Resource Authority (CARA) has been given the status of a statutory body to enable it to perform its function more effectively.
  • Penalties for cruelty against a child have been prescribed in case of offering a narcotic substance to a child and selling and abduction of a child.
National Register of Citizens
 

Why in news?

The Supreme Court extended the deadline to publish the final National Register of Citizens (NRC) by a month to August 31.

What is NRC?

  • The National Register of Citizens (NRC) is a list of Indian citizens of Assam.
  • The NRC was introduced to identify illegal immigrants from Bangladesh and recognise the Indian citizens in Assam.
  • It was first prepared in 1951, following the census of 1951.
  • Assam has become the first State to get the first draft of its own updated NRC.

Why the NRC is being updated in Assam?

  • The NRC is now being updated to detect Bangladeshi migrants who may have illegally entered Assam after the midnight of March 24, 1971.

How NRC is updated?

  • NRC updation basically means the process of enlisting the names of citizens based on Electoral Rolls upto 1971 and 1951 NRC.
  • The NRC will be updated as per the provisions of The Citizenship Act, 1955 and The Citizenship (Registration of Citizens and Issue of National Identity Cards) Rules, 2003
  • For a person’s name to be included in the updated NRC list of 2018, he/ she will have to furnish:
  • Existence of name in the legacy data
  • In case of the applicants born after 1971, by Proving linkage with the person whose name appears in the legacy data
  • The NRC will be now updated to include the names
  • of those persons (or their descendants) who appear in the NRC, 1951
  • (or) in any of the Electoral Rolls up to the midnight of 24th March, 1971
  • (or) in any one other admissible documents issued up to mid-night of 24th March, 1971,which would prove their presence in Assam or in any part of India on or before 24th March, 1971.

What is Legacy Data?

  • All the names appearing in the NRC, 1951, or any of the Electoral Rolls up to the midnight of 24th March, 1971 together are called Legacy Data.

Requirements for inclusion in updated NRC

  • Existence of a person’s name in the pre-1971 period
  • Proving linkage with that person

Processes involved

  • Legacy Data Publication Phase
  • Application Form Distribution & Receipt Phase
  • Verification Phase
  • Draft NRC Publication & Receipt of Claims & Objections Phase
  • Final NRC Publication
 
RERA (Real Estate Regulatory Authority) Act, 2016

Why in news?

SC revokes licence of Amrapali Group in huge relief for stranded homebuyers;

About the news

  • The court cancelled Amrapali’s registration under the Real Estate (Regulation and Development) Act, 2016.

About RERA

  • RERA legislation is a national regulation and promotion regime for the real estate sector.
  • The Act protects the interest of the home buyers by promoting accountability and transparency in real estate deals especially from the part of the developers.
  • Besides the promoters and allottees (buyers), the Act also covers the real estate brokers also.

Main features of RERA

  • A Real Estate Regulatory Authority shall be formed by the Centre and States to oversee the activities of the sector.
  • The responsibility of Authorities is to consider the complaints of buyers and sellers (developers) in a stipulated time (60 days).
  • Registration is mandatory for all commercial and residential real estate projects where the land is over 500 square metres or includes more than eight apartments.
  • The developer will have to place 70% of the money collected from a buyer in a separate escrow account to meet the construction cost of the project.
  • RERA instructs that developers should not ask more than 10 per cent of the property’s cost as advance payment before signing the registered sale agreement.
  • The developer can’t make any changes to the plan without the written consent of the buyer.
  • If delayed in completion of the project, then the developer will have to pay interest on the amount paid by the buyer.

Environment

Crocodile species in India

Why in news?

Odisha has renewed its effort to revive the population of gharials, a “critically endangered” species of crocodile, in their natural habitat by releasing five reptiles into the Satkosia gorge of Mahanadi, the southernmost limit of gharials’ home range in India.

About the news

  • Odisha is the only State in India having all three species of gharial, mugger and saltwater crocodile.
  • The State forest department began conservation of these crocodile species in 1975 by establishing three rearing centres
  1. Tikarpada for gharials in Angul district
  2. Ramatirtha for muggers in Mayurbhanj
  3. Bhitarkanika for saltwater crocodiles in Kendrapara district

What are the crocodile species found in India?

  • 3 crocodile species are found in India
  1. Saltwater crocodile
  • Found in coastal areas of Odisha, WB and TN.
  • They have the broadest distribution of any modern crocodile, ranging from the eastern coast of India, throughout most of Southeast Asia, and northern Australia.
 
  • They are apex predators.
  • Least Concern in IUCN Red List.
  1. Mugger Crocodile
  • Medium-sized crocodile that mostly inhabits freshwater lakes, ponds, sluggish rivers, swamps and marshes.
  • Found throughout the Indian subcontinent.
  • Vulnerable in IUCN Red list.
  1. Gharials
  • It is the longest and rarest Crocodile.
  • Their major population remain in three tributaries of the Ganges River, the Chambal and the Girwa Rivers in India, and the Rapti-Naryani River in Nepal.
  • The gharial reserves of India are located in three States of Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan.
  • National Gharial Wildlife Sanctuary is in Chambal.
  • Critically endangered in IUCN Red List.

World Affairs

Global Innovation Index (GII)

Why in news?

India hopes to improve position on global innovation index.

About Global Innovation Index (GII)

  • The Global Innovation Index (GII) is an annual ranking of countries by their capacity for, and success in, innovation.
  • It would rank 130 countries on the basis of more than 80 indicators measuring various aspects of innovation including political environment, education, infrastructure and business sophistication.
  • It was launched by INSEAD in 2007.
  • Today the GII is co-published annually by Cornell University, INSEAD, and the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), a specialized agency of the United Nations.

About WIPO

  • WIPO is the global forum for intellectual property (IP) services, policy, information and cooperation.
  • It is one of the 15 specialized agencies of the United Nations (UN).
  • Its mission is to lead the development of a balanced and effective international IP system that enables innovation and creativity for the benefit of all.
  • WIPO was created in 1967.
  • WIPO currently has 192 member states, administers 26 international treaties.
  • It is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland.

Current Affair Capsules

JATAN
  • JATAN: Virtual Museum Builder is a digital collection management system for Indian museums designed and developed by C-DAC Pune.
  • It is a client server application with features such as image cropping, watermarking, unique numbering, management of digital objects with multimedia representations.

Map Aided Programme     

Burhi Gandak River
  • The Burhi Gandak River is a tributary of the Ganges.
  • It is known as Sikrahana in its upper reaches.
  • The Burhi (“Old”) Gandak flows parallel to and east of the Gandak Riverin an old channel

Previous Year Questions Revision Series (Pqrs)

  1. Consider the following pairs:

Hills                                                      Region

  1. Cardamom Hills          :           Coromandel Coast
  2. Kaimur Hills                  :           Konkan Coast
  3. Mahadeo Hills             :           Central India
  4. Mikir Hills                      :           North-East India

Which of the above pairs are correctly matched?

  • 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 3                 

(c) 3 and 4                         (d) 2 and 4