Join Our Telegram : Prelims Telegram Group

 

Government Interventions

PENCIL

Why in news?

Union Minister for Labour & Employment informed Lok Sabha that 361 Complaints of Child Labour have been resolved via PENCIL (Platform for Effective Enforcement for No Child Labour) Portal (pencil.gov.in).

What is it?

  • The PENCIL portal is an electronic platform that aims at involving Centre, State, and District Governments, civil society and general public in achieving the target of child labour free society.
  • It is a portal on child labour elimination.
  • PENCIL portal has five components
  1. Child Tracking System
  2. Complaint Corner
  3. State Government
 
  • National Child Labour Project (NCLP)
  • Each district will nominate District Nodal Officers (DNOs) who will receive the complaints.
  • Within 48 hours of receiving complaints, DNOs will check genuineness of complaint and take rescue measures in coordination with police, if complaint is genuine.

Background

  • India has ratified the two Core Conventions of International Labour Organization (ILO) in June 2017 which shows the country's commitment to a child labour free nation.
  1. Convention 138 regarding admission of age to employment
  2. Convention 182 regarding worst forms of Child Labour

About National Child Labour Project (NCLP)

  • NCLP is central sector scheme launched in 1988 for rehabilitation of child labour.
  • It has the basic objective of suitably rehabilitating the children withdrawn from employment thereby reducing the incidence of child labour in areas of known concentration of child labour.
  • Under it, special schools/rehabilitation centres for rehabilitation of child labourers are opened so that they can be mainstreamed into formal schooling system.
  • These centres also provide non-formal education, vocational training, supplementary nutrition and stipend to children withdrawn from employment.

Revised NCPL

  • NCLP has been revised expanded and aligned to the new legislative provisions.
  • The legislative changes have been accompanied by creation of additional institutional mechanisms at the district, state and national level.
Pradhan Mantri Laghu Vyapari Maan-dhan Yojana

Why in news?

Labour ministry has notified the pension scheme, Pradhan Mantri Laghu Vyapari Maan-dhan Yojana for self-employed workers in the country.

About the yojana

  • It is a pension scheme for retailers and traders benefitting over three crore self-employed workers in the country.
  • The scheme is an extension of the PM Shram Yogi Maan-dhan Yojana.
  • It will make all beneficiaries eligible for a monthly pension of Rs 3000 after the age of 60 at a miniscule monthly contribution.
  • Government has earmarked Rs 750 crore for the scheme in the Union Budget 2019-20.

Eligibility

  • All shopkeepers and self-employed persons, as well as retail traders with GST turnover below Rs 1.5 crore and aged between 18-40 years, can enroll for the scheme.
 
  • Interested persons can enroll themselves through over 3.25 lakh common service centres spread across the country.
  • The government will make a matching contribution in the subscribers' account.
  • The provisions of this scheme shall apply to the laghu vyaparis, who are self-employed and working as shop owners, retail traders, rice mill owners, oil mill owners, workshop owners, commission agents, brokers of real estate, owners of small hotels, restaurants and other laghu vyaparis.
  • The Life Insurance Corporation of India has been chosen as pension fund manager responsible for managing the pension fund, central record keeping agency and responsible for pension pay out.

World Affairs

UNAIDS

Why in news?

The Joint UN programme on AIDS, commonly known as UNAIDS, is facing one of the worst challenges afflicting the global AIDS response

About UNAIDS

  • UNAIDS is leading the global effort to end AIDS as a public health threat by 2030 as part of the Sustainable Development Goals.
  • The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS) is the main advocate for accelerated, comprehensive and coordinated global action on the HIV/AIDS pandemic.
  • Established in 1994, it started its operations in 1996.
  • The mission of UNAIDS is to lead, strengthen and support an expanded response to HIV and AIDS that includes preventing transmission of HIV, providing care and support to those already living with the virus, reducing the vulnerability of individuals and communities to HIV and alleviating the impact of the epidemic.
  • UNAIDS seeks to prevent the HIV/AIDS epidemic from becoming a severe pandemic.
  • UNAIDS is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, where it shares some site facilities with the World Health Organization.
  • It is a member of the United Nations Development Group.
  • The agency promotes the GIPA principle (greater involvement of people living with HIV) formulated in 1994, and endorsed by the United Nations in 2001 and 2006.

UNAIDS has five goals

  1. Leadership and advocacy for effective action on the pandemic.
  2. Strategic information and technical support to guide efforts against AIDS worldwide.
  3. Tracking, monitoring and evaluation of the pandemic and of responses to it.
  4. Civil society engagement and the development of strategic partnerships.
  5. Mobilization of resources to support an effective response.

Science and Technology

 
Measles

Why in news?

Sri Lanka became the fourth country in the Asian region to eliminate measles.

About the news

  • Sri Lanka became the fourth country in the Asian region after Bhutan, The Maldives and Timor-Leste to eliminate measles.
  • Measles is considered as eliminated when a country interrupts transmission of an indigenous virus for three years.

About Measles

  • Measles is a highly contagious viral disease.
  • It is also known as rubeola.
  • It is a highly contagious respiratory infection caused by a virus which causes a rash all over the body.
  • Measles is transmitted via droplets from the nose, mouth or throat of infected persons.
  • It remains an important cause of death among young children globally, despite the availability of a safe and effective vaccine.
  • Under the Global Vaccine Action Plan, measles and rubella are targeted for elimination in five WHO Regions by 2020.
  • WHO is the lead technical agency responsible for coordination of immunization and surveillance activities supporting all countries to achieve this goal.

Symptoms

  • Runny nose
  • Dry hacking cough
  • Conjunctivitis, or swollen eyelids and inflamed eyes
  • Watery eyes
  • Photophobia, or sensitivity to light
  • Sneezing
  • A reddish-brown rash
  • Koplik's spots, or very small grayish-white spots with bluish-white centers in the mouth, insides of cheeks, and throat
  • Generalized body aches

Types

  • There are two types of measles
  1. Measles: This is the standard form caused by the rubeola virus.
  2. Rubella, or German measles: This is caused by the rubella virus.

Prevention

  • Vaccination is the most important tool for prevention.
  • The measles vaccine has been in use since the 1960s.
  • WHO recommends immunization for all susceptible children and adults for whom measles vaccination is not contra indicated.
  • Reaching all children with 2 doses of measles vaccine, either alone, or in a measles-rubella (MR), measles-mumps-rubella (MMR), or measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) combination, should be the standard for all national immunization programmes.
 

Current Affair Capsules

National Institute of Occupational Health
  • National Institute of Occupational Health is a premier public health institute, which was established in 1966 as Occupational Health Research Institute (OHRI), Ahmedabad and was later renamed as "National Institute of Occupational Health" (NIOH) in 1970.
  • The National Institute of Miners’ Health (NIMH), an autonomous institute under the Ministry of Mines (MoM), has been dissolved and merged with the ICMR-National Institute of Occupational Health (NIOH), Ahmedabad, under the Ministry of Health & Family Welfare (MoH&FW), with all assets and liabilities.
Dracaena cambodiana
  • It is a dragon tree species whose sap turns bright red after coming in contact with air discovered for the first time in India in the Dongka Sarpo area of West Karbi Anglong, Assam.
  • The plant yields dragon’s blood, a bright red resin used since ancient times as medicine, body oil, varnish, incense and dye.
Global Innovation Index

Map Aided Programme     

MAJOR  CROPS  IN  INDIA

Coarse Cereals / Millets

  • Coarse Cereals and Millets are the short duration warm weather (Kharif) crops used both as food and fodder.
  • The coarse cereals and millets are grown in areas with high temperature and are called dryland crops because can be grown in areas with 50-100 cm rainfall.
  • Jowar is the third most important food crop with respect to area and production.
  • It is a rain-fed crop mostly grown in the moist areas which hardly needs irrigation.
  • Major Jowar producing States were Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh in 2011-12.
  • Bajra grows well on sandy soils and shallow black soil.
  • Major Bajra producing States were: Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and Haryana in 2011-12.
  • Ragi is a crop of dry regions and grows well on red, black, sandy, loamy and shallow black soils.
  • Major ragi producing states are: Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Sikkim, Jharkhand and Arunachal Pradesh
  • Top three states with maximum production of total coarse cereals are Maharashtra, Karnataka, and Rajasthan.

Previous Year Questions Revision Series (Pqrs)

  1. Consider the following pairs:

 Region                              well-known for

                                       the production of

Kinnaur                   :                    Areca nut

Mewat                    :                    Mango

Coromandel               :                Soya bean

Which of the above pairs is / are correctly matched?

(a) 1 and 2 only                 (b) 3 only                    

(c) 1, 2 and 3                     (d) None