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Security

Securitypedia

Why in news?

CISF launches encyclopaedia to strengthen security services.

About Securitypedia

  • It is an online encyclopedia which incorporates a wide gamut of security-related practices across the globe.
  • It was launched by the Central Industrial Security Force.
  • Securitypedia is not just a static website containing data archives but a platform where CISF officials can contribute by writing blogs on professional issues.
  • It has been developed as a repository of knowledge and contains extensive information on technical learning, CISF manuals, case studies, technical compendium, etc.
 
  • CISF Tube is yet another feature of Securitypedia, where officials can find all videos relevant to CISF.
  • The CISF has established a technical lab at National Industrial Security Academy (NISA) in Hyderabad to maintain and update technical knowledge about the latest innovations in the field safety and security.
  • National Industrial Security Academy (NISA) is the premier Training Institution of CISF in Industrial Security and Disaster Management.
  • The technical research and development lab of CISF has been actively engaged with national-level research institutions such as the National Remote Sensing Centre (NRSC) to leverage the technological solutions they can offer.
Integrated Battle Groups (IBGs)

Why in news?

The new concept of Integrated Battle Groups (IBGs) which the Army plans to create as part of overall force transformation is close to implementation.

About IBGs

  • IBGs are brigade-sized, agile, self-sufficient combat formations, which can swiftly launch strikes against adversary in case of hostilities.
  • Each IBG would be tailor-made based on Threat, Terrain and Task and resources will be allotted based on the three Ts.
  • They are battle formations with heavy firepower that will combine infantry, armour, artillery, engineers, logistics and support units to bring together all necessities to fight a war.
  • They need to be light so they will be low on logistics.
  • They will be able to mobilise within 12-48 hrs based on the location.
  • Brigades are the smallest battle formations in the Indian Army and corps, the largest.
  • The IBGs will be even smaller than brigades, to make them more flexible and allow for faster mobilisation of troops.

More about it

  • The two IBG configurations tested include
  1. Offensive roles (strike corps) to carry out hostilities such as cross-border operations and it will be more armour (tank)-intensive for thrusts across the border.
  2. Defensive postures (holding corps) to withstand an attack from an enemy side and it will be infantry-centric to hold ground.
  • The major difference between brigades and IBGs lies in the number of troops in these battalions.
  • A brigade comprises three to four battalions with 800 troops each, whereas the planned IBGs, to be commanded by officers of the rank of a major general, will have around 5,000 troops each.
  • The concept of IBGs has already been test-bedded by 9 Corps.
  • While a command is the largest static formation of the Army spread across a defined geography, a corps is the largest mobile formation.
  • Typically each corps has about three brigades.
  • The idea is to reorganise them into IBGs which are brigade-sized units but have all the essential elements like infantry, armoured, artillery and air defence embedded together based on the three Ts.
  • An IBG operating in a desert needs to be constituted differently from an IBG operating in the mountains.
 

Related Information (PLUS)

  • Indian Army has initiated four major studies to undertake overall transformation of the force.
  1. Restructuring of Army Headquarters
  2. Force restructuring which includes creation of Integrated Battle Groups (IBG)
  3. The cadre review of officers
  4. Review of the terms and conditions of Junior Commissioned Officers and Other Ranks.
  • The aim is holistic integration to enhance the operational and functional efficiency, optimise budget expenditure, facilitate force modernisation and address aspirations.
  • The overall transformation will also see a reduction in the size of the 1.3 million Army.

World Affairs

TAPI Gas Pipeline

Why in news?

Pakistan has told Turkmenistan in plain words that Islamabad will not bear the gas transit risk in war-ravaged Afghanistan under $8 billion TAPI gas line.

About the news

  • The pipeline from Afghanistan that will enter from Chaman and pass through Zhob, DI Khan, Quetta, Multan and touch upon Fazilka, a city at Indian border which is 150 kilometer away from Multan.
  • From Fazilka, the pipeline will enter India.

About TAPI gas pipeline

  • The TAPI (Turkmenistan–Afghanistan–Pakistan–India) Pipeline, also known as Trans-Afghanistan Pipeline, is a natural gas pipeline being developed by the Galkynysh – TAPI Pipeline Company Limited with participation of the Asian Development Bank (ADB).
  • India’s effort is to tap Turkmenistan’s Galkynysh gas fields, which are the fourth largest in the world.
  • The pipeline will transport natural gas from Galkynysh gas field in Turkmenistan through Afghanistan into Pakistan and then to India.
  • The pipeline first proposed in 1995.
  • Construction on the project started in Turkmenistan on December 2015.
  • The life of supply is expected to last for period of 30 years and shall be operational from 2019.
  • Member countries of the project have recommended establishing an inter-government joint security task force (JSTF) to serve as the nucleus of the safety of the pipeline.
Military Logistics Support Agreements (MLSA)

Why in news?

India is looking to conclude three Military Logistics Support Agreements (MLSA) by the year-end with Japan, Russia and Australia.

About Logisitics agreements

  • Logistics agreements are administrative arrangements facilitating access to military facilities for exchange of fuel and provisions on
 
  • mutual agreement, simplifying logistical support and increasing operational turnaround of the military away from India.

About Acquisition and Cross-Servicing Agreement (ACSA)

  • It is a Military Logistics Support Agreements (MLSA) between Indian military and the Japan Self Defense Force (JSDF) to use each other’s bases for logistical support.
  • The ACSA would permit the Indian Navy (IN) access to a Japanese base in Djibouti, while the Japan Maritime Self Defense Force (JMSDF) would be permitted to use India’s military installations on the Andaman and Nicobar Islands located in the Indian Ocean, which lie near the Malacca Straits, next to other naval facilities.

About Agreement on Reciprocal Logistics Support (ARLS)

  • It is a Military Logistics Support Agreements (MLSA) between India and Russia.
  • The Russian agreement gives India access to its facilities in the Arctic region which is seeing increased global activity as new shipping routes are opening up and resources are becoming available.
  • The Indian Navy, with a significant strength of Russian origin warships, will be able to smoothly transit through for exercises or refits using the agreement while the air force will find it easier to deploy aircraft for joint exercises.
  • Following the agreement, Russians could not only use ports like Mumbai and Visakhapatnam.
  • Besides ports Russia would also be able to access airbases.
  • India could do the same, when it came to Russian ports and airbases.
  • This includes access to Northern route and ports in Russian part of Arctic.
  • India is looking at an Arctic station in near future and Russia could be partner.
  • Russia has also assured India access to energy resources in the vast Arctic region.

Science and Technology

Senescent cells

Why in news?

New research finds that ageing, senescent cells stop producing nucleotides, the building block of DNA.

About the cells

  • Cellular senescence is one phenomenon by which normal cells cease to divide.
  • It is defined as irreversible cell cycle arrest driven by a variety of mechanisms.
  • Senescent cells are the opposite of stem cells.
  • They can never divide again.
  • When young cells were prevented from producing nucleotides, the cells became senescent.
  • The findings have potential to help with ageing and related diseases.

About Nucleotides

  • Nucleotides are organic molecules that serve as the monomer units for forming the nucleic acid polymers deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA).
  • Both of them are essential biomolecules within all life-forms on Earth.
 
  • Nucleotides are the building blocks of nucleic acids.
  • They are composed of three sub unit molecules
  1. A nitrogenous base (also known as nucleobase)
  2. A five-carbon sugar (ribose or deoxyribose)
  3. At least one phosphate group.

Current Affair Capsules

Ulhas River
  • The Ulhas River is a west flowing river in Western India in the state of Maharashtra.
  • 1,050 passengers rescued from stranded train near Mumbai as the Ulhas River near Badlapur breached its banks and the train halted.
Appointments Committee of the Cabinet (ACC)
  • The Appointments Committee of the Cabinet (ACC) decides appointments to several top posts under the Government of India and is composed of the Prime Minister of India (who is the Chairman), the Minister of Home Affairs.
  • ACC appointed RAW officer V K Johri as the next Director General of BSF.

Map Aided Programme     

MAJOR CROPS  IN  INDIA

Pulses  

  • Most pulses are leguminous crops and provide proteins to the vegetarian population.
  • Major pulses of India include
  • Gram
  • Tur or arhar 
  • urd
  • mung 
  • masur 
  • kulthi 
  • matar etc.
  • Pulses need less moisture and survive even in dry conditions.
  • Being leguminous crops, all these crops except arhar help in restoring soil fertility by fixing nitrogen from the air.
  • Therefore, these are mostly grown in rotation with other crops.
  • Major pulse producing states in India are Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Maharashtra and Karnataka.

Previous Year Questions Revision Series (Pqrs)

  1. What are the benefits of implementing the ‘Integrated Watershed Development Programme’?
  2. Prevention of soil runoff
  3. Linking the country’s perennial rivers with seasonal rivers
  4. Rainwater harvesting and recharge of groundwater table
  5. Regeneration of natural vegetation

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

(a) 1 and 2                         (b) 2, 3 and 4  

(c) 1, 3 and 4                     (d) 1, 2 , 3 and 4

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