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Tri-Netra System

Why in news?

Railways is conducting extensive trials of Tri-Netra technology but it cannot be introduced till it is found to be perfect in detecting any obstruction on tracks during fog.


  • It is an advanced collision avoidance system for Indian Railways.
  • TRI-NETRA is the abbreviation for Terrain imaging for diesel dRivers INfra-red, Enhanced opTical &Radar Assisted system.
  • TRI-NETRA system shall be made up of
  1. High-resolution optical video camera
  2. High sensitivity infra-red video camera
  3. Radar-based terrain mapping system
  • These three components of the system shall act as three eyes (Tri-Netra) of the Locomotive Pilot.

How does the Tri-Netra system work?

  • TRI-NETRA is designed to “see” the terrain ahead of the running locomotive during inclement weather by combining the images captured by the three sub-systems and to create a composite video image which shall be displayed in front of the Loco Pilot on a computer monitor.
  • It enables the pilot to see the terrain before the running locomotive reaches the point
  • The system once installed, will help in enhancing the vision of the locomotive drivers in difficult weather conditions, such as fog, heavy rains, during night time etc, so that they have enough time to apply brakes without hitting the objects/obstructions.

Technology used

  • It is based on technology, which the fighter aircrafts use to see through clouds and operate in pitch darkness.
  • Tri-NETRA or the third eye also uses technology employed by naval ships to map the ocean floor and navigate in the night.

Who developed the concept of Tri-Netra?

  • The Development Cell under the guidance of Member Mechanical, Railway Board developed the concept.
PUNCH Mission

Why in news?

NASA has selected Texas-based Southwest Research Institute to lead its PUNCH mission.

About the mission

  • It is NASA’s landmark mission to image the Sun.
  • It will image regions beyond the Sun’s outer corona.
  • PUNCH stands for “Polarimeter to Unify the Corona and Heliosphere”.
  • It is focused on understanding the transition of particles from the Sun’s outer corona to the solar wind that fills interplanetary space.

How it works?

  • PUNCH will consist of a ‘constellation’ of four suitcase-sized microsats that will orbit the Earth in formation and study how the corona, which is the atmosphere of the Sun, connects with the interplanetary medium.
  • The mission will image and track the solar wind and also the coronal mass ejections, which are huge masses of plasma that get thrown out of the Sun’s atmosphere.
  • The coronal mass ejections can affect and drive space weather events near the Earth.
  • Since the Sun’s corona is much fainter than its surface layers, it cannot be viewed by the instruments directly.
  • So PUNCH will block out the light from the Sun to view its corona and the structures in it.

Related Information (PLUS)

Aditya L1

About Aditya - L1

  • It is India’s first solar mission.
  • It will study the sun’s outer most layers, the corona and the chromospheres and collect data about coronal mass ejection, which will also yield information for space weather prediction.
  • The satellite was conceived as a 400 kg class satellite carrying just one payload, the Visible Emission Line Coronagraph (VELC).
  • The Aditya - L1 will be inserted in a halo orbit around the Lagrangian point 1 (L1), which is 1.5 million km from the Earth.
  • The satellite will perform additional experiments and will also observe the Sun's Photosphere and the Chromosphere.
  • Aditya - L1 will have six additional payloads.
  1. Solar Ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (SUIT
  2. Aditya Solar wind Particle Experiment (ASPEX)
  3. Plasma Analyser Package for Aditya (PAPA)
  4. Solar Low Energy X-ray Spectrometer (SoLEXS)
  5. High Energy L1 Orbiting X-ray Spectrometer (HEL1OS)
  1. Magnetometer
  • The Aditya - L1 is set to launch during 2019-2020 timeframe by Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV-XL) from Sriharikota, Andhra Pradesh.

What is a Langrangian point?

  • Lagrangian point is a point where the attraction by the Sun and the Earth becomes equal.
  • The point doesn't experience gravitational force.
  • If you put a satellite there, it won't get deflected, yet your captured data will be accurate.

Government Interventions

Nirbhaya Fund

Why in news?

Only 20% of Nirbhaya Fund has been used by States until 2018.

About the news

  • The top five States ranked in terms of utilisation of money across various schemes under the Nirbhaya Fund were Chandigarh (59.83%), Mizoram (56.32%), Uttarakhand (51.68%), Andhra Pradesh (43.23%) and Nagaland (38.17%).

About the fund

  • It is a Fund for safety of women by the Central government.
  • The Nirbhaya Fund was set up by the UPA-II in the aftermath of the gang rape of a paramedical student in a moving bus in New Delhi in December 2012.
  • It was started with an initial corpus of ₹1,000 crore.
  • The Fund supports schemes for safety of women, and over the past six years it has swelled to ₹3,600 crore through allocation in the Finance Budgets.
  • It is a non-lapsable corpus fund.
  • Though the Fund was instituted in 2013, its disbursement gathered pace only from 2015.
  • The key schemes under which the States have been allocated money include
  • Emergency Response Support System
  • Central Victim Compensation Fund
  • Cyber Crime Prevention against Women and Children
  • One Stop Scheme
  • Mahila Police Volunteer
  • Universalisation of Women Helpline Scheme
  • It is being monitored by Empowered Committee of Officers under Secretary of Women and Child Development Ministry.
  • It is an inter-ministerial committee which appraises and recommends various projects (schemes) proposed by different ministries to be funded from Nirbhaya Fund.
  • The Fund is administered by Department of Economic Affairs of the finance ministry.
One nation, one ration card

Why in news?

The Central government gave a one-year time to the states and the Union Territories (UTs) to implement the "one nation, one ration card" system "without any fail".

About the card

  • It is a scheme under which the beneficiaries would be able to buy subsidised foodgrains from ration shops in any part of the country.
  • The new mechanism will ensure no poor is deprived of PDS entitlement if that person shifts from one place to another.
  • The system will also help remove fake ration card holders.
  • The scheme will allow portability of food security benefits.
  • It will be available across the country from July 1, 2020.
  • The poor migrant workers will be able to buy subsidised rice and wheat from any ration shop in the country, so long as their ration cards are linked to Aadhaar.
  • The migrants would only be eligible for the subsidies supported by the Centre, which include rice sold at Rs. 3/kg and wheat at Rs. 2/kg.
  • Even if a beneficiary moved to a State where grains were given for free, that person would not be able to access those benefits, as they were funded by the State exchequer.
Universal Immunization Programme

Why in news?

The diphtheria vaccine is among the oldest vaccines in India’s Universal Immunisation Programme, yet cases in the country have been going up over the last few years after showing a remarkable reduction in 2015.

About Diptheria

  • Diphtheria is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheria.
  • It primarily infects the throat and upper airways, and produces a toxin affecting other organs.
  • The illness has an acute onset and the main characteristics are sore throat, low fever and swollen glands in the neck, and the toxin may, in severe cases, cause myocarditis or peripheral neuropathy.
  • The disease is spread through direct physical contact or from breathing in the aerosolized secretions from coughs or sneezes of infected individuals.


  • Immunization Programme in India was introduced in 1978 as ‘Expanded Programme of Immunization’ (EPI) by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare.
  • The first three vaccines in the programme were BCG (against TB). DPT (diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus) and cholera.
  • In 1985, the programme was modified as ‘Universal Immunization Programme’ (UIP) to be implemented in phased manner to cover all districts in the country by 1989-90.
  • DPT continues to be a part of UIP, which now includes 12 vaccines.
  • It is now incorporated as a pentavalent vaccine, (containing vaccine against diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus [DPT], Hepatitis B and Haemophilus influenzae type B).
  • UIP aims at giving all children born in India all these 12 vaccines free.
  • As per data from the National Family Health Survey 4, the coverage of diphtheria vaccine is 78.4%.
  • Despite being operational for many years, UIP has been able to fully immunize only 65% children in the first year of their life.

About Mission Indradhanush

  • It is to strengthen and re-energize the programme and achieve full
  • immunization coverage for all children under age of 2 years and all pregnant women at a rapid pace.
  • Mission Indradhanush was launched by the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare on December 25, 2014.
  • It aims to accelerate the process of immunization by covering 5% and more children every year to achieve target of full coverage by 2020.

Diseases targeted

  • Initially, the 7 diseases being targeted are diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, poliomyelitis, tuberculosis, measles and Hepatitis B.
  • In addition to these, vaccines for Japanese encephalitis and Haemophilus influenzae type B are also being provided in selected states.
  • In 2016, four new additions have been made namely Rubella, Japanese Encephalitis, Injectable Polio Vaccine Bivalent and Rotavirus.
  • In 2017, Pneumonia was added to the Mission by incorporating Pneumococcal conjugate vaccine under Universal Immunization Programme.

Intensified Mission Indradhanush

What is it?

  • Intensified Mission Indradhanush is a special drive with focus on improving immunization coverage in select districts and cities to ensure full immunization to more than 90% by December 2018.
  • The achievement of full immunisation under Mission Indradhanush to at least 90% coverage was to be achieved by 2020 earlier.
  • With the launch of IMI, achievement of the target has now been advanced.

Target group

  • Every child under two years of age and all those pregnant women who have been left uncovered under the routine immunisation programme.
  • Special attention will be given to unserved/low coverage pockets in sub-centre and urban slums with migratory population Implementation.
  • It will have inter-ministerial and inter-departmental coordination and action-based review mechanism.
  • It is supported by 11 other ministries and departments, such as Ministry of Women and Child Development, Panchayati Raj, Ministry of Urban Development, Ministry of Youth Affairs among others.

Current Affair Capsules

Troponin I
  • Troponin I, a cardiac and skeletal muscle protein useful in the laboratory diagnosis of heart attack is a cardiac biomarker.
  • A biomarker is a measure or physical sign that can be used to determine how a biological system is functioning.
  • Remdesivir is an antiviral drug developed as a treatment for Ebola virus disease.
  • Remdesivir was able to treat four African green monkeys which were given a lethal dose of Nipah virus.

Map Aided Programme     

Ramsar Wetlands of Uttarpradesh

Upper Ganga River (Brijghat to Narora Stretch)

  • A shallow river stretch of the great Ganges with intermittent small stretches of deep-water pools and reservoirs upstream from barrages.
  • The river provides habitat for IUCN Red listed Ganges River Dolphin, Gharial, Crocodile, 6 species of turtles, otters, 82 species of fish and more than hundred species of birds.
  • This river stretch has high Hindu religious importance for thousands of pilgrims and is used for cremation and holy baths for spiritual purification.

Previous Year Questions Revision Series (Pqrs)

  1. What explains the eastward flow of the equatorial counter-current?
  2. The Earth’s rotation on its axis
  3. Convergence of the two equatorial currents
  4. Difference in salinity of water
  5. Occurrence of the belt of calm near the equator