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Register of Indigenous Inhabitants of Nagaland (RIIN)

Why in news?

The Nagaland government is initiating an exercise to prepare a master list of all indigenous inhabitants of the State.

About RIIN

  • The Register of Indigenous Inhabitants of Nagaland (RIIN) is seen as a localized version of the National Register of Citizens in Assam.
  • It will be the first official master list of Nagaland’s indigenous inhabitants.

What is RIIN? How will it be prepared?

  • Civil society groups in Nagaland have often conducted house-to-house surveys for listing non-Naga and IBIs (Illegal Bangladeshi Immigrants).
  • The RIIN will be the first official master list of Nagaland’s indigenous inhabitants.
  • Its objective is to prevent people from acquiring fake indigenous inhabitants’ certificates.
  • The list will be based on an extensive survey besides digging into official records of indigenous residents from villages and urban wards.
  • The entire process under the supervision of the district administration would be completed within 60 days from
  • the start on July 10.
  • Apart from Nagaland’s Chief Secretary and Home Commissioner, nodal officers of the rank of a Secretary will monitor the implementation without involvement in the adjudication process.
  • The nodal officers are required to submit monthly updates to a permanent committee set up under the Home Department.

What are the steps of this exercise?

  • The survey teams have been tasked with noting each family’s original residence, current residence and documents such as Aaadhar.
  • Post-verification, the RIIN will be finalised and hard copies placed in all villages and wards while electronic copies will be stored in the State Data Centre.
  • Everyone figuring in RIIN will be issued a barcoded and numbered Indigenous Inhabitant Certificate (IIC).
  • The process will be dovetailed with the online system of Inner Line Permit (ILP).
  • No IIC will be issued after RIIN is finalised except to babies born to indigenous inhabitants of Nagaland.

What is ILP?

  • The ILP is a temporary travel document an Indian citizen has to possess to enter ‘protected’ areas of the Northeast.
  • The Central government issues the ILP under the Bengal Eastern Frontier Regulation, 1873, which restricted the entry of ‘British subjects’ or Indians into these areas primarily to protect the British interest in tea and oil.
  • The restriction continued for ‘Citizens of India’ after Independence to protect tribal cultures in the northeastern region and to regulate movement to certain areas near the international border.
  • Apart from the entire State of Nagaland barring its commercial hub Dimapur, the ILP is applicable in Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram.

Who is an indigenous inhabitant?

  • Nagaland has 16 recognised tribes — Angami, Ao, Chakhesang, Chang, Dimasa Kachari, Khiamniungan, Konyak, Kuki, Lotha, Phom, Pochury, Rengma, Sangtam, Sumi, Yimchungrü and Zeliang.
  • The Kachari and Kuki are non-Naga tribes while the Zeliang comprises two Naga communities, Zeme and Liangmai.
  • Entry in RIIN is virtually guaranteed for people belonging to these communities.
Code on Wages Bill

Why in news?

The Union Cabinet approved the re-introduction of the Code on Wages Bill.

About the bill

  • It is a bill to enable transfer of wages through the direct benefit transfer mechanism and bolster the system for redressing the grievances of labourers.
  • This will make minimum wages applicable for both formal and informal sectors.
  • The proposed Bill aims to merge four central laws
  1. The Payment of Wages Act, 1936
  2. The Minimum Wages Act, 1948
  3. The Payment of Bonus Act, 1965
  4. The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976
  • The proposed Bill will provide for all essential elements relating to wages, equal remuneration, and bonus.
  • The provisions relating to wages will be applicable to all employments covering both organised and unorganised sectors.
  • The power to fix minimum wages continues to be vested in the Central and State governments in their respective spheres.
  • It will enable the appropriate government to determine the factors by which the minimum wages shall be fixed for different categories of employees.
  • The factors shall be determined taking into account the skills required, the arduousness of the work assigned, geographical location of the workplace and other aspects which the appropriate government considers necessary.

Key provision

  • One of the important provisions relates to timely payment of wages and authorised deductions from wages, which are presently applicable only to employees drawing wages up to ₹18,000 per month.
  • Under the new Bill, this will be made applicable to all employees irrespective of the wage ceiling.

World Affairs

World Heritage Convention

Why in news?

Walled City of Jaipur makes it to the World Heritage List of UNESCO during the 43rd Session of the World Heritage Committee held at Baku, Azerbaijan.

About the news

  • Jaipur became the second city of the country after Ahmedabad to get the recognition.
  • With Jaipur's inclusion, the number of heritage sites across India that are on the UNESCO World Heritage list, has grown to 38.

About the city

  • The historic walled city of Jaipur in Rajasthan was founded in 1727 by the Kachwaha Rajput ruler of Amber, Sawai Jai Singh II. The city was established on the plains and built according to a grid plan interpreted in the light of Vedic architecture.
  • It serves as the capital city of the culturally-rich state of Rajasthan.
  • ICOMOS (The International Council on Monuments and Sites) had inspected the city in 2018, post its nomination.
  • It took into account the architecture of streets with colonnades, which intersect the centre, creating large public squares called chaupar.
  • The uniform façades of markets, residences and temples in the main streets had also impressed the council.
  • The city’s urban planning shows an intermingling of ideas from ancient Hindu, modern Mughal and western cultures.

About world Heritage Conventions

  • The Convention is an international agreement meant to protect world cultural and natural sites.
  • It was adopted in 1972 by the Member States of the United Nations Educational, Scientific & Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
  • The aim of the Convention is to ensure the proper identification, protection, conservation and presentation of cultural and natural heritage with 'outstanding universal value to all mankind'.
  • The full title of the World Heritage Convention is the Convention Concerning the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage.

Parties to the Convention

  • As of 31 January 2017 there are 193 parties to the convention.
  • The Convention sets out the duties of States Parties in identifying potential sites and their role in protecting and preserving them.

World Heritage List

  • The Convention established a World Heritage List, which includes properties exhibiting cultural and/or natural heritage of ‘outstanding universal value’ and meeting at least one of a set of World Heritage criteria.
  • The International World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee establishes the sites to be listed as UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
  • Currently there are 1073 world heritage sites in the world, out of which 832 cultural, 206 natural and 35 mixed.
  • Mixed sites have both outstanding natural and cultural values.
  • The convention also contains a "List of World Heritage in Danger" which are sites threatened by serious and specific dangers.

How world Heritage Sites are selected?

  • Respective national government of a country nominates a site which has an Outstanding Universal Value (OUV).
  • Out of the ten criteria, the proposed nomination must satisfy at least one.
  • The Nomination is then evaluated by the International Council on Monuments and Sites and the World Conservation Union which makes recommendations to the World Heritage Committee.
  • The Committee on its annual meeting determine whether or not to inscribe each nominated property on the World Heritage List.

World Heritage Committee

  • The Convention is overseen by the World Heritage Committee, which is composed of 21 countries elected by the States Parties.
  • The Committee is supported by UNESCO’s World Heritage Centre in Paris.
  • The heritage centre in Paris which advises States Parties on the preparation of site nominations, organises technical assistance on request and coordinates reporting on the condition of sites.
  • It also coordinates emergency action to protect threatened sites and administers the World Heritage Fund.

Advisory Bodies

  • Three international non-governmental or intergovernmental organizations advise the Committee.
  1. For natural sites it is the IUCN-The World Conservation Union
  2. For cultural sites it is the International Council on Monuments and Sites (ICOMOS)
  3. For the restoration and training of cultural sites it is the International Centre for the Study of the Preservation and Restoration of Cultural Property (ICCROM).

World Heritage Sites in India

  • Currently India host 37 world heritage sites, out of which 29 are cultural, 7 natural and 1 mixed.
  • The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) is the nodal agency for the forwarding the request for heritage status for a particular site in India.


  • Victorian Gothic and Art Deco Ensembles of Mumbai has been induced as the 29th cultural heritage site.
  • Now, the Jaipur City is the 30th Cultural Heritage Site.

List of Sites in India


  1. Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area
  2. Kaziranga National Park
  3. Keoladeo National Park
  4. Manas Wildlife Sanctuary
  5. Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks
  6. Sundarbans National Park
  7. Western Ghats


  1. Khangchendzonga National Park


  • Responsible for coordinating international cooperation in- education, science, culture and communication.
  • Permanent Head Quarters is in Paris, France.
  • It has 194 member states and 10 associate members.
  • UNESCO state parties are the UN member states except Cook Islands, Niue, and the State of Palestine.
  • Liechtenstein, a UN member is not member of UNESCO.
  • US left UNESCO citing “anti-Israel bias” and the size of U.S. dues to the organization with effect from 31 December 2018.



Why in news?

A ‘vulnerable’ dugong, also known as sea cow, found stranded on Thai beach has been named by the Thailand’s princesses.

About Dugong

  • The dugong is a medium-sized marine mammal.
  • It is a species of sea cow found throughout the warm latitudes of the Indian and western Pacific Oceans.
  • It is the only member of the Dugongidae family, and its closest living relatives are the manatees.
  • The dugong is the only strictly herbivorous marine mammal.


  • The dugong is largely dependent on seagrass communities for subsistence and is thus restricted to the coastal habitats which support seagrass meadows
  • These enormous vegetarians can be found in warm coastal waters from East Africa to Australia, including the Red Sea, Indian Ocean, and Pacific.


  • These languid animals make an easy target for coastal hunters.
  • They were long sought for their meat, oil, skin, bones, and teeth.

Conservation status

  • The IUCN lists the dugong as a species ‘vulnerable’ to extinction.
  • The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) limits or bans the trade of derived products.
Pashmina goat

Why in news?

Kharnak nomads are one of the four major Changpa tribes that collectively produce over 80% of India’s pashmina wool.

About the goat

  • The Pashmina goat is a breed of goat inhabiting the plateaus in Tibet, Nepal, parts of Burma and neighbouring areas of Ladakh in Jammu and Kashmir, India.
  • It is also known as ‘Changthangi’, 'Changra".
  • They are raised for ultra-fine cashmere wool, also known as pashmina once woven.
  • These goats are generally domesticated and are reared by nomadic communities called the Changpa in the Changthang region of Greater Ladakh.

Related Information (PLUS)

Chiru Goat
  • Chiru goat also known as the Tibetan antelope is a ‘near threatened’ species whose underfur is used for making the famous Shahtoosh shawls.
  • It is a migratory species of the cold desert, moving seasonally between lower and higher altitudes, and can be found between 3,700m and 5,500m.
  • It requires large expanse of land for its movement and ranging patterns to fulfil its feeding and breeding requirements.
  • Chiru is a protected species in India, China and Nepal.
  • Its geographical range extends from Ladakh in the west to Ngoring Hu (China) in the east.
  • In India, the species were recorded at two places, Daulat Beg Oldie (DBO) in the Karakoram Range and the Chang Chenmo Valley in Ladakh.

Shahtoosh Shawls

  • Shahtoosh shawls are prepared from the fur in the undercoat of Chiru goats.
  • 3-5 chiru goats are to be killed to collect the fur for a single shawl as the wool cannot be sheared or combed from the goat.
  • It is woven by highly skilled Kashmiri artisans.
  • Shahtoosh shawls are a status symbol in India and Pakistan and one of the most valuable dowry gifts a person can give.
  • Shatoosh should not be confused with pashmina shawls which are combed out of the live pashmina goat.


  • The selling or owning of shahtoosh was made illegal in all countries that signed the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species (CITES) on March 3, 1975.
  • India endorsed the ban in 1976 and it was extended to Jammu and Kashmir in 2002.

Current Affair Capsules

Ramsar sites of West bengal
  • The East Calcutta Wetlands, are a complex of natural and human-made wetlands lying east of the city of Calcutta (Kolkata), of West Bengal in India.
  • The wetlands are used to treat Kolkata's sewage, and the nutrients contained in the wastewater sustaining fish farms and agriculture.
  • map aided programme

Previous Year Questions Revision Series (Pqrs)

  1. Which of the following statements regarding ‘Green Climate Fund’ is/are correct?
  1. It is intended to assist the developing countries in adaptation and mitigation practices to counter climate change.
  2. It is founded under the aegis of UNEP, OECD, Asian Development Bank and World Bank.

Select the correct answer using the code given below.

  • 1 only (b) 2 only                    
  • Both 1 and 2             (d) Neither 1 nor 2