Why in news?
Scientists at the National Centre for Microbial Resource — National Centre for Cell Science (NCMR-NCCS) reported a new archaeonin Sambhar Salt Lake in Rajasthan.
- Archaea are a primitive group of microorganisms that thrive in extreme habitats such as hot springs, cold deserts and hypersaline lakes.
- These slow-growing organisms are also present in the human gut, and have a potential relationship with human health.
- They are known for producing antimicrobial molecules, and for anti-oxidant activity with applications in eco-friendly waste-water treatment.
- Based on genome analysis, researchers found that the organism has potential gene clusters that helps maintain the metabolism of the archaea to survive in extreme harsh conditions.
- This particular organism also harbours specific pathways for DNA replication, recombination and repair.
Why in news?
40 buffaloes die of haemorrhagic septicaemia in Odisha’s Kendrapara.
- Hemorrhagic septicemia was recognized in Japan as a specific disease of cattle caused by particular strains
- of Pasteurelia as early as
- Hemorrhagic septicemia is a severe bacterial disease caused by certain strains.
- Hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by certain members of Pasteurella multocida multocida, a Gram-negative coccobacillus in the family Pasteurellaceae.
- Hemorrhagic septicemia is an acute or peracute illness.
- Hemorrhagic septicemia is caused by two serotypes of P. multocida; namely, B: 2 and E: 2.
- The disease is also spread through contact with infected animals, contaminated clothing, equipment, and through ingestion or inhalation of the bacteria.
- Primary symptoms include swishing tails, reduced cudding, undigested food in faeces and reduced milk yield.
- Antibiotics are effective only if they are started very soon after the onset of clinical signs.
- Some drugs used to treat include oxytetracycline, trimethoprim/ sulfamethoxazole, a combination of penicillin and streptomycin, or sulphaquinoxaline.
Note - There are no published reports of infections with P. multocida serotypes B: 2 or E: 2 in people.
Biorock or mineral accretion technology
Why in news?
India begins coral restoration in Gulf of Kachchh.
- The Zoological Survey of India (ZSI), with help from Gujarat’s Forest Department, isattempting for the ﬁst time a process to restore coral reefsusing biorock or mineral accretion technology.
- A biorock structure was installed one nautical mile oﬀ the Mithapur coast in the Gulf of Kutch.
- Biorock is the name given to the substance formed by electro accumulation of minerals dissolved in seawater on steel structures that are lowered onto the sea bed and are connected to a power source, in this case solar panels that ﬂoat on the surface.
How the technology helps?
- The initiative of coral restoration using biorock technology could potentially help to sustain the earlier successes.
- The technology helps corals, including the highly sensitive branching corals, to counter the threats posed by global warming.
Biorock or mineral accretion technology:
- The technology worksby passing a small amount ofelectrical current through electrodes in the water.
- When a positively chargedanode and negativelycharged cathode are placedon the sea ﬂoor, with an electric current flowing between them, calcium ions combinewith carbonate ions and adhere to the structure (cathode). T
- This results in calciumcarbonate formation. Corallarvae adhere to the CaCO3and grow quickly.
- Fragments of broken corals are tied to the biorockstructure, where they areable to grow at least four tosix
- times faster than their actual growth as they need notspend their energy in building their own calcium carbonate skeletons.
Note -India has four major coralreefs areas: Andaman andNicobar Islands, Lakshadweep, Gulf of Mannar andthe Gulf of Kutch.
Adhoc Committee of the Rajya sabha to prevent child pornography content on the social media
Why in news?
The Adhoc Committee of the Rajya sabha instituted by Chairman Shri M. Venkaiah Naidu has made 40 far reaching recommendations to prevent sexual abuse of children and to contain access to and transmission of child
- The report of the Committee was presented by the Chairman of the Committee Shri Jai Ram Ramesh to the chairman of Rajya Sabha.
- The 14-member Committee including 7 women members of Rajya Sabha.
- The Committee heard the views of the government agencies and other stakeholders like Google, Facebook, Whatsapp, Bytedance(TikTok), Twitter and Sharechat.
- The report says that definition of child pornography needs to be broadened with additional clause to be inserted in the POCSO Act, 2012, under which advocating or counselling sexual activities with a person under the age of 18.
- It has recommended that the Act should have a provision on cybergrooming (defined in June 2016 by International Labour Organisation as ‘the process of establishing/ building a relationship with a child either in person or through the use of the Internet or other digital technologies to facilitate either online or offline sexual contact with that person.’)
ü Rajya Sabha Committee calls for mandatory apps on all devices and filters to regulate children's access to pornography content.
ü Seeks regulation of online payments to buy child pornography material.
ü Recommends changes to pocso and it acts to protect children from sexual abuse
ü Internet service providers to be held responsible for providing access to and disseminating child pornography content.
ü Suggests national level nodal agency to counter the menace.
ü Calls for international alliance against child abuse.
White listing of websites
Why in news?
Limited access to the 2G mobile service was restored in Kashmir on the eve of the Republic Day on Saturday.
The government allowed the locals to access 301 ‘whitelisted’ websites for the first time since August 5.
- Sometimes Internet service providers employ whitelists to protect their customers.
There are various types of whitelists, including commercial, noncommercial, local area network (LAN),
program and application whitelists.
- Rather than blacklisting harmful websites, whitelisting is considered to be a proactive measure.
- Whitelisting is used to allow access to pertinent and safe websites, which may be considered an alternative to the use of anti-malware software.
- Regarding emails, a whitelist includes email addresses that are considered acceptable and are therefore not filtered out.
- Organizational whitelists are used to make sure that institutions such as public schools protect their students against harmful websites.
- These organizations may allow, only those sites that promote organizational goals, such as those that assist students with classroom assignments.
Current Affairs Capsules
- It is a semiaquatic egg-laying mammal endemic to eastern Australia, including Tasmania.
- Platypuses are among the few venomous mammals.
- They are a species of primitive mammals called monotremes.
- The International Union for Conservation of Nature lists the animals as a "Least Concern".
- To celebrate the spirit of India, the annual event Bharat Parv is being organised in Delhi from 26th to 31st January.
- The objective of Bharat Parv is to encourage Indians to visit different tourism places of India and to inculcate the spirit of ‘Dekho Apna Desh’.
- The Central theme of this year’s Bharat Parv is ‘Ek Bharat Shreshtha Bharat’ and ‘Celebrating 150 Years of Mahatma Gandhi’.