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WHY IN NEWS

Thomson Reuters in a perception poll 2018 lists India as the most dangerous nation for women

BACKGROUND             

The poll conducted earlier in 2011 placed India

 in the 4th position The current poll ranks India

ahead of countries like Syria, Saudi Arabia,

Pakistan (6th position).

THOMSON REUTERS POLL 2018 VS. CREDIBILITY

  • Perception not fact based report

PERCEPTION VS. REALITY

GLOBAL TREND

  • World Bank data- India’s Maternal Mortality Rate is 174 per 100,000 live births
  • UNICEF Female Genital Mutilation- India does not even feature in the list among young girls younger than 14
  • Global Burden of Disease Study, 2017 –India ranked 128th among 188 countries in terms of meeting the UN health related Sustainable Goals
    by 2030
  • World Economic Forum’s Global Gender Gap Report- India ranked, 108th out of 144 countries .India fared better than  Pakistan(143) and countries like Saudi Arabia (138)
  • World Bank Survey- Participation of women in labour force in India is way above at 25.4%

INDIA’S REALITY

HEALTH

  • Global Nutrition Report 2017
  • 51% of Indian women aged 15-49 anaemic, most in world
  • WHO report on mental health- 20% of Indian population will suffer from mental illness by 2020. rates higher in women by 20-25%
  • India meets only 2 of the 8 targets set by WHO, World Health Report of 2016 – worst performing regions in health after Africa – in terms of GNI per capita

ECONOMIC PARTICIPATION

India Development Report by World Bank – India had one of the lowest female participation in the workforce- 120th among 131 countries. Participation rate declined to 27%, lowest rate since 1990

VIOLENCE, SEXUAL AND NON-SEXUAL HARASSMENT

  • Dowry, child marriages, female infanticide, sex selective abortions, domestic violence trafficking eve teasing rape, honour killing , marital ape , wife beating, acid attacks etc
  • Global Slavery Index India has been ranked 4th out of 167 countries
  • National Commission for Protection of Women: Every third child bride in the world is in India – ranks 6th among top 10 countries with high rates of child marriage among women
  • Cultural practices – Devadasi system, Female Genital Mutilation (Khatna practiced among Bohra community) , denying dignity to widows, cultural belief of impurity associated with menstruation ,etc Impaling to  wards off evil spirits etc
  • Economic Survey 2018: India has 63 million ‘missing’ women and 21 million unwanted girls
  • A Shasastra Seema Bal (SSB) study reports claims number of victims illegally bought to India has increased by 500% since 2013 , forced into prostitution and other exploitative  labour

INDIA’S STATEGIC INTERVENTIONS


Education

·         RTE ACT 2009

·         Beti Bachao Beti Padhao

·         Padhe Bharat, Badhe Bharat

·         Vidyanjali (School volunteer programme)

·         Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan

·         Web based portal- www.vidyalakshmi.co.in

·         Kasturba Gandhi Vidyalaya

·         Rashtriya Uchatthar Shikhsha Abhiyan

Legal

·         Criminal Law Amendment Act 2013

·         Sexual Harassment of women at Workplace ( Prevention, Prohibition and Redressal ) Act 2013

·         Protection of women from domestic violence act 2005

·         Prohibition of child marriage act, 2006

·         The protection of children from sexual offences Act 2012

·         The Pre Conception and Pre Natal Diagnostic Technique  Act (PC $ PNDT ) 1994

Health

·         Pradhan mantra Matru Vandana Yojana

·         Janani Shishu Suraksha Kayakram

·         Janani Suraksha Yojana

Digital Mobile Applications

·         Raksha

·         Himmat

·         Chilla

·         bSAFE

Labour welfare interventions

·         Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act

·         Rashtriya Mahila kosh

·         Mahila – E- Haat

·         Maternity Benefit (Ammendment Bill) 2016

·         Sukanya Samriddhi Yojana

·         Equal Renuneration Act

·         Mahila Adhikarita Yojana

·         Provision of women farmers in ATMA scheme – Agriculture Technology Management Agency Scheme

Others

·         Expansion of One Stop Centre Schemes-Sakhi

·         SABLA – Scheme for Empowerment of Adolescent Girls

·         Gender Budgeting

·         Panic button and Global Positioning system in Mobile Phone handsets Rules 2016

·         New passport rules 2016

·         Training Women Heads of Panchayats by the National Commission for Women


IMPACTS

  • Beti Bachao Beti Padhao : In Haryana, for the first time in 16 years, the state has registered the highest ever child sex ratio in 2017 as against 876 girls in 2015.
  • Economic Survey 2018: approximately 4.6 crore households were given employment under MGNREGA, of which 54 percent were taken up by women
  • Pradhan Mantri Matritva Vandana Yojana: More than 17 lakh beneficiaries enrolled under PMMVY
  • mSakhi is currently being used by 329 ASHAs to benefit 16,000 mothers. A mobile broadband initiative accomplishing such a task in rural India is no small feat.

WAY FORWARD

  • Increased police presence and Women counsel at police station
  • Infrastructural upgradation- public transportation and street lighting
  • Setting up of Fast Track special courts
  • Strengthening of prosecution machinery
  • Improving quality of Investigation
  • Special Forensic Laboratories
  • Gender sensitivity quizzes in schools to uncover unconscious gender biases
  • Visibility of the Issue in public domain

IMF – level of participation on par with men could increase India’s GDP by 27 percent of additional GDP in 2025, upping the country’s annual GDP BY 1.4 % points

 McKinsey  reports – Women’s participation in the labour force can add $ 12 trillion to global growth-  India could add $ 700 bn